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. 1 






DR LIVINGSTONE'S 
CAMBRIDGE LECTURES, 



TOGETHER WITH 



A PREFATORY LETTER 



KEV. PROFESSOR SEDGWICK, M.A., F.R.S., &c. 

VICE-MASTER OF TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE. 



EDITED WITH INTRODUCTION, LIFE OF DR LIVINGSTONE, 
NOTES AND APPENDIX, 



BY THE 

REV. WILLIAM MONK, M.A. F.R.A.S. &c. 

OF ST JOHN'S COLLEGE, AND CURATE OF CHRIST'S CHCRCII, CAMBRIDGE. 

WITH A PORTRAIT AND MAP, 



A LARGER MAP, BY ARROWSMITH, GRANTED ESPECIALLY FOR THIS WORK BY THE 
PRESIDENT AND COUNCIL OF THE ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON: 



THE WHOLE WORK BEING A COMPENDIUM OF INFORMATION ON THE 
CENTRAL SOUTH AFRICAN QUESTION. 



Published for the Editor 

BY 

DEIGHTON, BELL AND Co. CAMBRIDGE. 

BELL AND DALDY, LONDON. 

1858. 



(SDarofcrfoge i 

PRINTED BY C. J. CLAY, 
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 



o3o 
,5% 

car 



TO THE 



MEMBERS OF OUR UNIVERSITIES IN PARTICULAR, 



AXD TV THE 



YOUNG MEN OF GREAT BRITAIN IN GENERAL, 



Cljis |Wi m hViattb far % <6bitor> 

IN THE PKAYEKFUL HOPE THAT THEIR ATTENTION WILL BE TURNED 

BY ITS PERUSAL TO THE PRESSING NEED OF 

MISSIONARIES 

IN THE HEATHEN MISSION FIELD NOW SO MUCH ENLARGED 

BY THE LABOURS OF DR LIVINGSTONE. 



" Then saith he unto his disciples, The harvest truly is plenteous, but the labourers are few ; pray ye 
therefore the Lord of the harvest, that he will send forth labourers into his harvest." 

Matt. ix. 37, 3S. 

God " hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth." Acts xvii. 96. 

" And they shall come from the east, and from the west, an-l from the north, and from the south, an ! 
shall sit down in the kingdom of God." Luke xiii. 29. 



Cflttititis. 



PAGE 

Introduction ..." i 

Life of Dr Livingstone xin 

Professor Sedgwick's Prefatory Letter . . . i — xciii 

Lecture I. i 

Lecture II 25 



APPENDIX. 

SECTION I. 

Dr Livingstone's Labours, Explorations, and Discoveries 
considered as to their extent and results in their 
Historical Aspect 51 



SECTION II. 

Dr Livingstone's Labours, Explorations, and Discoveries 
considered as to their extent and results in their 

Scientific Aspect 60 

Geography Cm 

Geology and Mineralogy 70 



vi CONTENTS. 

TAGK 

Meteorology •> 74 

Botany 78 

Zoology 80 

Some other Natural Sciences 81 

SECTION III. 

Dr Livingstone's Labours, Explorations, and Discoveries 
considered as to their extent and results in their 

Ethnological Aspect 83 

Unity op our Eace . ib. 

South African Tribes 86 

The Bechuana family of Tribes ib. 

The Bakalahari . . . ..».'. . .88 

The Backwains, or Bechuanas 89 

The Kafirs, or Caffres ........ 90 

The Makololo . . 92 

The Matebele -93 

The Bushmen . ... ..... 94 

The Bakoba, or Bayeige ....... ib. 

The Makalala 95 

The Barotse 96 

The Balonda ib. 

The Mambari 97 

The Batoka 99 

Traces of the ancient Egyptians . . . . . .100 

IS RACE INFLUENCED BY CLIMATE AND GEOGRAPHICAL SITUA- 
TION ? IOI 

African diseases and Medical practice .... 104 

Native love of Commerce ro5 

The Sichuana Language 106 

Its Construction ......... 109 

Its Importance . . . . . .. . . 1 2 r 

The African races not inferior to others . . . .124 



CONTEXTS. vii 

SECTION IV. 

Dr Livingstone's Labours, Explorations, and Discoveries 
considered as to their extent and results in their 
Moral and Eeligious Aspect 125 

The present Moral Condition of the Natives of South 

Africa 126 

The present Eeligious State of the Natives of South 

Africa 133 

Missionary retrospect with regard to South Africa . 149 
The Qualifications and Attainments necessary for the 

successful Missionary in South Africa . . .158 

Dr Livingstone's Letter with respect to Missionaries . 159 

The Natural Qualifications of the Christian Missionary. . 163 

The Moral and Spiritual Qualifications needed by the Chris- 
tian Missionary 165 

The Attainments best suited for the Christian Missionary . 167 
Missionary Prospects in South Africa . . . .172 

The Mission field in South Africa ib. 

Missionaries wanted more than means, to carry on the 

work 174 

The Means appointed for the Work — The Victory Won . 178 







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Rev? W: Livingstone 

Katai&d'tTifcan 1849 & 1856. 

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Proprietor.-, livm I'n M<tf> m tit,' 
BOOK OF TRAVELS. 



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INTKODUCTION. 



"1 /TANY friends on whom I can well rely have urged 
-L'-"~ the publication of Dr Livingstone's Cambridge 
Lectures; which on comparison with his large work 1 , 
will be found to be, in reality, a valuable epitome of its 
most striking features and details; but such an one as 
rather increases than lessens the desire for reading that 
book. 

Several points of great interest belong to these ad- 
dresses, as well as to their publication and perusal ; these 
chiefly being, the value and newness of their contents, 
the simple earnestness of their style, and especially the 
devoted Missionary tone pervading them. True piety 
dictated their delivery, and brightens their perma- 
nent embodiment in printed words. Moreover, many 
persons who saw, heard, and conversed with the lecturer 
himself, will like to possess such a memorial of a visit, 
which, regarded in all its bearings, we may hope will be 
productive of lasting good. 

The cordial reception given by the University to such 

1 Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa. John Murray, 
Albemarle Street, London. 

1 



ii INTRODUCTION. 

a man proves to the world at large that she is as ready 
as ever to recognize merit, advance science, encourage 
philanthropy, and promote religion. In this place of 
learning he has left a track behind him ; and has sown 
seed which will, in the end, produce good fruits in Africa. 
He came here with the avowed purpose of striving to 
awaken a deeper interest in Christian Missions to the 
heathen ; and spoke with the authority of the greatest 
of modern travellers, among the men and in the place 
where a Missionary spirit ought pre-eminently to prevail. 
We may conclude that a corresponding good effect was 
produced by his visit to Oxford, where he pronounced 
like burning words of truth with equal power and grace. 

The Senate-House scene was worthy of the most 
graphic painting which pen or pencil could portray. 
There was a solemn majesty about it which all present 
must have felt. It was an uncommon occasion. Cam- 
bridge elevation and culture came suddenly into contact 
with the mighty questions of African degradation and 
progress. Professor Sedgwick, in his farewell speech i to 
Dr Livingstone, delivered in the Combination-room at 
Trinity College, declared it to be the most enthusiastic 
reception which he had ever witnessed there during the 
last half century. Amid the past and present intellectual 
glories of that place, this Livingstone reception marks one 
of its best seras. Extremes there meet. Africa is ap- 

1 This speech, to a great extent, is reproduced at p. iv. of his Pre- 
fatory Letter. 



INTRODUCTION. in 

pealing by the mouth of her warm-hearted advocate in 
one of the greatest centres of civilization and evangeli- 
zation in the world, for help in her feebleness, light in 
her darkness, truth wherewith to battle her own error, 
and redress against her cruel wrongs of centuries. Help, 
light and redress, however tardy their approach, are 
perhaps effectually nigh at hand. These tones of witch- 
ing mastery will not let her plead in vain. The laugh 
may now be raised, and the burst of applause alternate 
with the cheerful approval of that throng, still in those 
thrilling moments of silence, now so breathless, does that 
sun-burnt, care and travel-worn, yet happy man, give 
utterance to feelings and sentiments which melt the 
heart, subdue the being, and enchain the soul. The union 
of mankind, into one common brotherhood of feeling, in- 
terest, sentiment and love, despite all differences of race, 
colour, clime, speech, condition, and nationality, seems 
to be actually brought about. The attention is kept up 
until the end; and furthermore, this interest is not dis- 
sipated by those final bursts of applause. 

The period of the visit of the Doctor here was oppor- 
tune. Various circumstances at that time kept our 
academic body, and especially the chief authorities, in 
residence. Yet he did not intentionally choose this occa- 
sion for his visit; on the contrary he had previously 
arranged to go to Lisbon at the same time ; but this plan 
was frustrated by the malaria then prevailing there. The 
Council promptly granted the Senate-House. Dr Whewell, 

1—2 



.iv INTRODUCTION. 

Master of Trinity College, Professor Sedgwick, The 
Astronomer Royal, Professor Selwyn, and Dr Bateson, 
Master of St John's College, paid him the most marked 
attention, while all received him kindly, and heard him 
gladly. 

It is desirable to state that I have the full concur- 
rence of Dr Livingstone and of Mr Murray, the pub- 
lisher of the book of travels, in editing these Lectures. 
Both have given me liberty to make such discretionary 
use of that book as I may find necessary, in striving to 
make this volume as useful as possible. Both approve of 
my project and have expressed a desire to forward it. I 
thank them for their kindness and confidence; and for 
the small map, life, notes, and appendix, I am mainly 
indebted to that work. With the same noble generosity 
which has characterized Dr Livingstone's life, he presented 
me with the copyright of the lectures revised by himself, 
and left me to dispose of any proceeds as I may think 
best. Due consideration has led me to decide on de- 
voting the entire proceeds 'of the work as follows : — In 
purchasing — 

1. Sechuana Bibles for Central South Africa. 

2. Books for the Library of the "Cambridge 

Church Missionary Union 1 ." 

1 This is a Society established among the junior members of the 
University for the purpose of increasing and sustaining a missionary 
spirit among them. It attempts this by means of occasional prayer 
and other meetings, a library, and reading-room open daily, and by 
promoting Christian and friendly intercourse among its members. I 



INTRODUCTION. v 

3. Books for Dr Livingstone*^ "Cambridge Memo- 
rial Library 1 . 1 ' 

The following extracts from his book will give the key 
to this attempt at presenting him with a library. It 
appears that the Dutch Boers were his active bitter 
enemies, for reasons stated at p. vi. 

" The Boers, encouraged by the accession of Mr 
Pretorius, determined at last to put a stop to English 
traders going past Kolobeng, by dispersing the tribe of 
Bakwains, and expelling all the missionaries. Sir George 
Cathcart proclaimed the independence of the Boers, the 
best thing that could have been done had they been 
between us and the Caffres. A treaty was entered into 
with these Boers; an article for the free passage of Eng- 
lishmen to the country beyond, and also another, that no 
slavery should be allowed in the independent territory, 
were duly inserted, as expressive of the views of Her 
Majesty's government at home. 'But what about the 

shall be pleased to receive presents of books for both libraries : works 
referring to Missions, Missionaries, &c. for the one, and books of 
general interest for the other. 

1 This library at present comprises about sixty volumes, which have 
been presented or promised, by Dr Whewell ; Professor Sedgwick ; 
Professor Selwyn ; Professor Jeremie ; Professor Browne ; Professor 
Miller ; Dr Lee, Hartwell Park ; Dr Bateson ; Rev. R. A. F. Barrett, 
Fellow of King's College; Rev. C. Babington, Fellow of St John's 
College ; Rev. C. Clayton, Fellow and Tutor of Caius College ; Rev. 
J. E. B. Mayor, Fellow of St John's College; Rev. T. Field, Fellow of 
St John's College ; R. Potts, Esq., Trinity College ; Rev. W. Emery, 
Fellow of Corpus Christi College ; Rev. S. B. Sealy ; H. Monk, Esq., 
Jesus College ; J. A. Scholefield, Esq. ; A Lady, &c, &c. 



71 INTRODUCTION*. 

missionaries V inquired the Boers. ' You may do as you 
please with tliemj is said to have been the answer of the 
4 Commissioner. 1 This remark, if uttered at all, was pro- 
bably made in joke : designing men, however, circulated 
it, and caused the general belief in its accuracy which 
now prevails all over the country, and doubtless led to 
the destruction of three mission stations immediately 
after. The Boers, four hundred in number, were sent by 
the late Mr Pretorius to attack the Bakwains in 1852. 
Boasting that the English had given up all the blacks 
into their power, and had agreed to aid them in their 
subjugation by preventing all supplies of ammunition 
from coming into the Bechuana country, they assaulted 
the Bakwains, and, besides killing a considerable number 
of adults, carried off two hundred of our school-children 
into slavery. The natives under Sechele defended them- 
selves till the approach of night enabled them to flee to 
the mountains; and having in that defence killed a num- 
ber of the enemy, the very first ever slain in this country, 
by Bechuanas, I received the credit of having taught the 
tribe to kill Boers ! My house, which had stood perfectly 
secure for years under the protection of the natives, was 
plundered in revenge. English gentlemen, who had come 
in the footsteps of Mr Gumming to hunt in the country 
beyond, and had deposited large quantities of stores in 
the same keeping, and upwards of eighty head of cattle 
as relays for the return journeys, were robbed of all; 
and when they came back to Kolobeng found the skele- 



INTRODUCTION. vn 

tons of the guardians strewed all over the place. The 
books of a good library — my solace in our solitude — were 
not taken away, but handfuls of the leaves were torn out 
and scattered over the place. My stock of medicines was 
smashed ; and all our furniture and clothing carried off 
and sold at public auction to pay the expenses of the 
foray. 

"Ido not mention these things by way of making a 
pitiful wail over my losses, nor in order to excite com- 
miseration; for though I do feel sorry for the loss of 
lexicons, dictionaries, &c, which had been the com- 
panions of my boyhood, yet, after all, the plundering only 
set me entirely free for my expedition to the north, and 
I have never since had a moment's concern for anything 
I left behind." 

The following letter, written by the Chief Sechele 1 , 
to Mr Moffat, describes the above transactions, and is a 
touching specimen of native eloquence : 

" Friend of my heart's love, and of all the confidence 
of my heart, I am Sechele ; I am undone by the Boers, 
who attacked me, though I had no guilt with them. 
They demanded that I should be in their kingdom, and 
I refused; they demanded that I should prevent the 
English and Griquas from passing (northwards). I re- 
plied, These are my friends, and I can prevent no one 
(of them). They came on Saturday, and I besought 
them not to fight on Sunday, and they assented. They 

1 For an account of this chief, see note, p. 4. 



vin INTRODUCTION. 

began on Monday morning at twilight, and fired with all 
their might, and burned the town with fire, and scattered 
us. They killed sixty of my people, and captured women, 
and children, and men. And the mother of Baleriling 
(a former wife of Sechele) they also took prisoner. They 
took all the cattle and all the goods of the Bakwains; 
and the house of Livingstone they plundered, taking 
away all his goods. The number of waggons they had 
was eighty- five, and a cannon; and after they had stolen 
my own waggon and that of Macabe, then the number of 
their waggons (counting the cannon as one) was eighty- 
eight. All the goods of the hunters (certain English 
gentlemen hunting and exploring in the north) were 
burned in the town ; and of the Boers were killed twenty- 
eight. Yes, my beloved friend, now my wife goes to see 
the children, and Kobus Hae will convey her to you. 
" I am, Sechele, 

" The Son of Mochoasele." 
A strong reason for giving publicity to this design for 
trying to obtain Bibles and the two libraries, is in order 
that I might hereby possibly forward objects so desirable. 
In the one case the advocates and helpers of Christian 
missions to the heathen, and in the other the friends 
and admirers of Dr Livingstone, may be the more in- 
duced to circulate this book. It must, however, be kept 
in mind, that the lectures themselves possess enough 
intrinsic merit to ensure and deserve a wide circulation. 
Giving as they do an outline of the main features of the 



INTRODUCTION. ix 

large work, they are well adapted for Parochial, School 
and Cottagers 1 Libraries, as well as for circulation 
through the medium of Free Libraries, Mechanic Insti- 
tutions, Book-Hawking Societies, &c. The affluent, who 
have both opportunity and leisure for reading the book 
of travels, can, at a small price, gratify and inform the 
poor on one of the most interesting and important topics 
of the day, by placing this little book in their hands. 
In truth, many persons whose time and energies are too 
much occupied for reading large books in general, can 
hence gain an outline of our traveller's great achieve- 
ments, and, in the main, hear him tell his own story. 

At all risk of compromising the desirable character 
of being regarded as a judicious editor, I have designedly 
kept prominent the important object of meeting a great 
public want by making this book a complete manual of 
the central South African question in all its bearings. 
An attentive perusal of this volume will give the ordi- 
nary reader a concise but entire view of this interesting 
topic. 

I have been encouraged to take this course in having 
my own judgement fortified by the advice of literary 
friends. If I have erred, I have knowingly sacrificed my- 
self for the good of others. 

Although our traveller actually speaks verbally in but 
a small part of this book, still in fact and substance it is 
mainly as essentially his as though he had dictated or 
written its pages. 



x INROBUCTION. 

I return my thanks to the President (Sir E. I. Mur- 
chison) and Council of the Eoyal Geographical Society, 
for the kind interest which they have taken in this book : 
especially for allowing me to quote Dr Livingstone's un- 
published letters, addressed to Sir E. I. Murchison from 
Africa during the progress of his journeys ; and for the 
great favour shewn in granting copies of Mr Arrowsmith's 
valuable map of the route across the continent, for this 
publication. 

To Dr Norton Shaw, Secretary to the above Society, 
I express my thanks both for the interest taken in, and 
the information contributed for, this work. 

To the Eev. Professor Sedgwick I express my deep 
obligations, for labouring so successfully beneath a weight 
of years, and despite continued sickness, in writing the 
accompanying prefatory letter, the completeness and value 
of which can only really be appreciated by those persons 
who have carefully studied the book of Travels. This 
eloquent letter is a complete digest of the narrative of 
the two great journeys ; it will be observed to contain a 
few parallelisms with some passages in the lectures, life, 
and appendix — resulting from writing entirely independ- 
ently — but it is thought better to let them remain. 

To Dr Lee, of Hart well Park, Buckinghamshire ; and 
to the Eev. Professor Browne, for revising the whole 
proofs;— to the Eev. F. Gell, B.D. Fellow of Christ's Col- 
lege, and other friends for reviewing the MSS. ; and to 
the Secretaries of the Society for the Propagation of the 



INTRODUCTION. xi 

Gospel in Foreign Parts, — of the Church and London 
Missionary Societies for information given, — I return my 
most grateful thanks. 

I herein also acknowledge the kind courtesy of the 
editor and reporters of the Cambridge Chronicle, for 
the trouble and interest which they have taken in 
order to secure accurate and extended reports of these 
lectures, which have been further corrected and en- 
larged by Dr Livingstone himself, and by reference 
to the report of the Independent Press, as well as by 
comparison with the corresponding passages in the book 
of travels. To the editor and reporters of the latter paper 
I have also to return thanks for readily endeavouring to 
secure careful reports. 

The portrait and small map are the production of Mr 
Vinter, of London, an artist eminent in his profession; 
the portrait 1 is based on the photograph taken by Mr 
Monson, of Cambridge, modified by a sitting given to 
Mr Vinter by Dr Livingstone. 

In explanation of the long delay which has occurred 
in publishing this book, I have to state that this has been 
somewhat caused by the every day interruptions insepa- 
rable from a clergyman's life in a large parish in a populous 
town ; and by the close perusal of several books, and of the 



1 Copies of this portrait, published by Mr Wallis, Sidney Street, 
Cambridge, can be obtained on India paper, 4to imperial, for framing, 
at a small price ; the profits of this also will be devoted to the before- 
mentioned objects. 



xii INTRODUCTION. 

book of travels three times over, in order to obtain these 
materials; but chiefly through the illnesses before referred 
to, of Professor Sedgwick. Surely real interest in matters 
so absorbing and vitally important in most respects, 
cannot have in the mean time waned. This delay has 
been very beneficial, since I have hereby gained some 
valuable contributions to the work, of various kinds. It 
is obvious, on comparing the excellency of the type, &c. 
in this book, with its small price, that a large circula- 
tion alone will help forward the two libraries. This 
smallness of price is intended to meet the wants and 
means of the many. 

For my own part, whatever trouble or anxiety may 
have fallen to my lot, in connection with these deeply 
interesting matters, will be amply repaid by any small 
amount of good thereby produced. This matter I pray- 
erfully leave in the hands of our gracious Lord, who 
doeth, giveth, and receiveth that which seemeth him best; 
resting content with that command generally given, " in 

THE MORNING SOW THY SEED, AND IN THE EVENING 
WITHHOLD NOT THINE HAND; FOR THOU KNOWEST NOT 
WHICH SHALL PROSPER, WHETHER THIS OR THAT." 

WILLIAM MONK. 

Aubrey Villa, 

Cambridge, ist June, 1858. 



LIFE OF DE LIVINGSTONE. 



DAVID LIVINGSTONE is a Scotchman, and one whom 
his nation may well delight to honour. He is one of 
God's true nobility, as is shewn by high resolve, energetic and 
successful action, Christian character, and unselfish aim. 

The Scottish nation stands out boldly in the history of 
great achievement; especially in Travel. Here is a golden 
chain of names eminent in exploration : Mungo Park, Bruce, 
Buchanan, Moffat, Livingstone. The last the greatest of all. 
It appears from his own statement, that his great grandfather 
fought at Culloden, and that his grandfather was a small 
farmer at Ulva, one of the cluster of the Hebrides. Like 
Sir Walter Scott, Burns, and others, his mind, in childhood 
and youth, was much influenced by the Gaelic and Scottish 
legends of years bye-gone. His grandfather could recount 
the lives of his forefathers for six generations, who it appears 
were remarkable for uprightness of character. One of them, 
on his death-bed, charged his family with a remembrance of 
this fact, and left them the motto for practical application, 
<f BE honest." This motto has doubtless influenced Dr 



xiv LIFE OF DR LIVINGSTONE. 

Livingstone's own character ; for he is ever desirous to appear 
himself, and to place all else with which he has to do, in a 
truthful unadorned light. His grandfather removed from his 
farm at Ulva to the Blantyre Cotton Works, near Glasgow, 
where he and his sons found employment. Dr Livingstone's 
father alone remained at home, and gained an honest liveli- 
hood as a small tea-dealer ; the others all became either 
soldiers or sailors in His Majesty's Service during the late 
French war. All parents may well learn wisdom by the 
example and influences exercised by those of the Doctor on 
himself. Hear what he says of his father especially : — " He 
deserved my lasting gratitude and homage for presenting me 
from infancy with a continuously consistent pious example, 
such as that the ideal of which is so beautifully and 
truthfully portrayed in Burns' ' Cotter's Saturday Night.' 
He died in February 1856, in peaceful hope of that mercy 
which we all expect through the death of our Lord and 
Saviour : I was . at the time on my way below Zumbo, 
expecting no greater pleasure in this country than sitting 
by our cottage- fire, and telling him my travels. I revere his 
memory." 

Dr Livingstone became a " piecer " in the factory at the 
age of 10. Now notice an instance of " the boy being the 
father of the man." With part of his first week's wages he 
bought Ruddiman's ie Rudiments of Latin," and studied this 
language afterwards at night for a long time. In this dis- 
advantageous manner he made steady progress. Surely 
hereby many a poor aspiring student, who is perchance 
engaged in " the pursuit of knowledge under difficulties," 
may take courage, and keep in mind the end achieved by this 



EARLY STUDIES. xv 

truly great man. On the other hand, the idle unprincipled 
student, who for years may have wasted his precious intel- 
lectual substance in riotous living; who deserves not the 
name of Student, but who has spurned the high gifts of 
talent, teaching, and opportunity, as being of nothing worth ; 
and who, as a consequence, begins when too late to feel 
within himself the degrading impotency of a blighted mind, 
together with the dark forebodings of a soul unblest — such 
an one must feel miserable and condemned, in pondering 
the noble issue of an early struggle such as this — an issue 
which compresses the ordinary doings of an age isolated by 
long periods before, and possibly by wider aeras, after its 
dawn, into the short life of one self-denying, self-dependent, 
God-fearing man. 

The dictionary part of his labours he pursued till 12 or 
later at night, returning to the factory at 6 a. m., and staying 
till 8 p. m. 

Like many others of his mould, he was a great reader 
in his youthful days. Scientific works and books of travel 
were his especial delight. After much anxious inquiry he 
found comfort in ascertaining the fact that true Science and 
philosophy are not the foes, but the handmaids of religion. 
We have now to dwell on the greatest personal event which 
can happen in his, and in every other mans life, viz. The true 
conversion of the soul to God. What this is, we are 
told in that memorable conversation held at night by 
Christ with Nicodemus. By it we have new hearts, new 
desires and affections, and renewed souls, given us. The 
Holy Ghost makes us new creatures ; old things have passed 
away, and behold all things have become new. Although 



xvi LIFE OF DR LI VINGSTONE. 

Dr Livingstone, and others eminent in various walks of 
life, have honourably graven their own names on the 
scroll of time, for earthly observation, still to have the 
name written in Heaven is an object of unspeakably higher 
aim. It is far better than the proudest record of earthly 
deeds, whether preserved on monumental brass, or living 
rock, or sculptured stone. The obelisk, statue, triumphal 
arch, or even pyramid, is nothing to it. Hear the account 
briefly given of his own conversion. 

" Great pains had been taken by my parents to instil the 
doctrines of Christianity into my mind, and I had no difficulty 
in understanding the theory of our free salvation by the 
atonement of our Saviour, but it was only about this time 
that I really began to feel the necessity and value of a per- 
sonal application of the provisions of that atonement to my 
own case. The change was like what may be supposed would 
take place were it possible to cure a case of { colour blind- 
ness.' The perfect freeness with which the pardon of all our 
guilt is offered in God's book drew forth feelings of affectionate 
love to Him who bought us with His blood, and a sense of 
deep obligation to Him for his mercy has influenced, in some 
small measure, my conduct ever since." 

In the spirit which real Christianity inspires in the soul 
of the true convert, he dedicated his life henceforth to the 
alleviation of human misery, like Howard and Wilberforce ; 
but more especially, after the example of the first disciples, 
he resolved to strive to make known Christ the " Chief Good," 
sought but not found by philosophy of old, in regions where 
the Gospel had not yet been preached. Towards China he 
turned his thoughts. There was true heroism in this resolve, 



MISSIONARY PREPARATION. xvn 

for China of all others was perhaps the most difficult field 
of missionary enterprise, and is so now. Again do we learn 
a lesson from his practical mind. He immediately studied 
and obtained a degree in medicine; a course which helped 
him much in all respects in Africa 1 . He now unwittingly pre- 
pared himself for these African journeys, in botany, geology, 
other natural sciences, and pedestrianism, by making excursions 
in Scotland. The advantage of this training is obvious in 
the book of Travels, since his references to these departments 
of knowledge are so accurate and valuable. Yet there is 
something striking about this adaptation of means to an end. 
This preparation was not like that of Mungo Park, made 
with especial reference to Africa. His views now, as we 
have seen, were not thither, but China-ward. He was 
preparing himself for his work, but knew it not. Such was 
Cranmer's case in making himself " the Scripturist " here at 
Cambridge. Such has been the case with thousands of others, 
and possibly is so now with some who read this book. You 
want to know your work, but as yet do not. Wait ! 
follow, and do not go before the providence of God ; make 
the best of present opportunities. That work will be made 



1 It appears to be commonly agreed among travellers, and espe- 
cially missionaries, that a knowledge and practice of medicine is in- 
valuable to any one dwelling or travelling among uncivilized people. 
This is a hint to be taken and acted on by those who contemplate such 
courses of life. The many evidences given in Dr Livingstone's book 
of his professional usefulness, and consequent acceptableness, among 
the heathen, as well as the valuable information afforded to ourselves 
on medical and botanical topics, confirm this view. These remarks 
apply to hosts of other travellers and missionaries whose experience in 
this respect is recorded. 

2 



xvni LIFE OF DR LIVINGSTONE. 

plain, if you are prayerful and earnest about it. These excur- 
sions are amusingly referred to in page 5. 

The following traits of character are brought out in the book 
of Travels : — The valuable power of total abstraction of mind 
amid surrounding noises; intense independence of character in 
entirely supporting himself by labour while attending the medi- 
cal and Greek classes, and divinity lectures at the University of 
Glasgow; and great endurance, arising from a life of early toil. 

The life of Dr Livingstone affords a remarkable illustra- 
tion of God's superintending providence. If ever the doctrine 
of a particular providence were clearly proven by the tes- 
timony of human experience, as corroborative of Scripture, 
surely this life completely does this; so much so, that I pro- 
pose deliberately to be guilty of some anachronisms, by 
bringing together certain episodes in his experience occurring 
at different times. It is best to trace God's hand whenever 
we can; and to shew "chance" and "change" to be only 
other words for "providence." With general providence 
we do not now concern ourselves : this is well summed up 
in that passage, " He maketh the sun to shine on the just 
and on the unjust." See God's particular providence as set 
forth in the following occurrences. Just as our traveller is 
about to proceed to China, the Opium War breaks out : " Man 
deviseth his way, but God directeth his steps." Had he gone 
to China, who would have opened up Central Africa? In 

consequence of this frustration of his Chinese plans, he turns 

- 
his thoughts to Africa, and in time proceeds thither. Here 

is one instance : turn attention to another. 

While at Kuruman his waggon- wheel breaks, and he is 

vexatiouslv detained there a fortnight instead of returning to his 



GOB'S PROVIDENCE ILLUSTRATED. xix 

station among the Bak wains 1 . During this time the attack 
is made on Sechele, and Dr Livingstone's property destroyed, 
as detailed at page vi. of the Introduction. "We may con- 
clude almost positively that the Boers would have killed 
him, since they hated him with so cordial a hatred. Ponder 
another instance. 

He has just compassed his ardent purpose of visiting 
Sebituane 2 . This done, he proposes to settle with him. The 
chief is quite as desirous for such a settlement as he. No. 
" To every man his work." The chiefs is done : he dies. 
Our traveller's plan of settlement is set aside ; once more 
he is a wanderer, and soon afterwards in company with 
Mr Oswell discovers the Zambesi, a full deep flowing river 
as broad as the Thames at London bridge, 1500 miles inland. 
Again, when at Linyanti he deliberates, like Abraham 
and Lot, whether he shall turn to the right hand or to the 
left. He knows himself to be in central South Africa, and 
that the ocean is on both hands to the East and the West. 
We may try to picture him in our mind's eye, thousands of 
miles away from European civilization, in the midst of 
African barbarism. God watches him there; not a hair 
of his head shall be injured. By faith only is he able to 
know this; sense and sight never can divine what a day 
may bring forth; faith trusts and hopes. He deliberates 
anxiously and prayerfully, then tries first to find a path to the 
sea towards the West. It turns out in the event, after going 
first from Linyanti to the West, and then from Loanda back 
again across the continent almost to the Eastern Coast, that 
had he first gone to the East he must inevitably have 
1 See Travels, p. 118. 2 Ibid. p. 89. 



xx LIFE OF BR LIVINGSTONE. 

been cut off in the war then raging between some hostile 
native tribes and the Portuguese, which was over when he 
got there, after having gone to the West. Once more. 
"When at Loanda, he falls in with several of Her Majesty's 
cruisers 1 . In these he has an opportunity of returning to 
England : his ill health seemed imperatively to demand this. 
Moreover, the entreaties of officers and men, desire of visit- 
ing home, and especially of meeting those whom nature and 
affection drew nearest to him, all powerfully impel him to 
embark. But no ; with him, as with all noble-minded men, 
duty and honour stand first. He is bound to return to Sekeletu ; 
and also to provide for the safety of the faithful companions 
of his perilous pilgrimage. This is not all. The great work 
of opening up Africa is. not accomplished. He may be 
sick in body, and more sick at heart, as he turns his back 
upon the ocean, but is inflexible, and sends his journal, 
letters, &c. on board the Forerunner, and apparently goes 
from comparative safety to certain destruction. Not so : that 
ship, with nearly every person on board, was lost. That man 
accomplished his journey and his object, and has just left 
his native country nerved and prepared for encountering new 
dangers, and we may reasonably hope destined to achieve new 
and more splendid successes. 

There is something so striking in these occurrences, that 
their being thus brought together is of more consequence than 
a strict adherence to chronological order. The object of sending 
a book into the world should be not alone to amuse, or even 
instruct, after one stereotyped fashion, but to cause the reader 
to rise from its perusal a better man. 

1 P- 39^ &c - 



MISSIONARY LABOURS xxi 

We now resume the thread of his life. His first mission- 
ary Station was at Kuruman in the Bechuana country, about 
700 miles from Cape Town. In 1844, he here married 
the eldest daughter of Mr Moffat, the well-known African 
missionary and traveller, by whom he has four children. The 
following quotation from his book will give in his own 
words a concise outline of his life from 1840 till his return 
home : — 

(i If the reader bears in mind that from 1840 to 1845 
I was employed in preparatory labours and associated with 
other missionaries at Kuruman and Mabotsa ; then from 1845 
to 1849 continued to work at Chonuane and Kolobeng, aided 
only by Mrs Livingstone and two native teachers ; that in 
1849 the journey to discover Lake Ngami was undertaken ; 
and that in the following pages a sketch of our labours at 
Kolobeng is given, as well as an account of the journey to 
Lake Ngami, and finally the last great journey which occupied 
the years 1852-6 detailed, — he will have a clear idea of the 
arrangement of this book. Speaking generally, I have spent 
sixteen years of my life, namely, from 1840 to 1856, in medi- 
cal and missionary labours in Africa without cost to the 
inhabitants." 

It is impossible to overrate his gigantic labours as a 
traveller. The British character is eminently marked by 
hardihood, endurance and perseverance. The same spirit 
sent the Pilgrim Fathers to America, prompted the at- 
tempt to find a north-west passage round that Continent, 
traversed the South Pacific, conquered India, colonized 
Australia, and now crosses Africa. These qualifications, 
combined with high intellect, have made the Briton a pioneer 



xxii LIFE OF DR LIVINGSTONE. 

in almost every department of social, national, intellectual, 
moral and religious progress. No one can say that such is 
not the case in South Central Africa. An examination of the 
route delineated on the map will shew that Dr Livingstone 
lias travelled in that country almost eleven thousand miles. 
Under what circumstances ? read his book and you will 
see. Now prostrate with fever, overcome with fatigue, beset 
with difficulties, and tried by untoward events. One day, 
untutored companions have to be managed, savage tribes 
propitiated ; and another, trackless forests must be threaded, 
bridgeless rivers, swamps and prairie lands crossed, and 
dangers on all hands overcome. Nearly every day subsist- 
ence had to be obtained by hunting, or received as presents 
from the natives. His most usual way of travelling was in a 
waggon, walking, in canoes, or on ox-back. The ox Sinbad is 
rather a celebrity in the book : he carried our traveller all the 
way from Linyanti to Loanda, and back again. Women were 
generally kind. The Bushmen were cordial, but occasionally 
somewhat cold ; as well as the Bechuanas. He received 
unkindness and insolence from the Boers; unvarying hos- 
pitality and confidence among the Makololo ; general kindness 
among the Balonda ; and decided hostility among the slave- 
dealing tribes, and along the slave-dealers' trail. 

Professor Sedgwick's letter gives a complete account of the 
two great journeys. The book of travels alone gives the detail 
of these. It is a book which, for its literary merit, new and 
valuable information, candour, uprightness, and Christian spirit, 
must commend itself and be commended. Therein the inci- 
dents of the first journey, from 1840 — 52, are to be found in 
pp. 1 — 93; and those of the second from 1854 — 6, from p. 94 



HIS JO URNEYS—RET URN HOME. xx 1 1 1 

to the end. The last journey necessarily occupies most of the 
book, and absorbs public attention, since during its progress 
the great discoveries were made of so much consequence to 
Africa and the world. Preparatory to this, he sent his family 
home to England from Cape Town. This journey extended 
from the southern extremity of the Continent to St Paul 
de Loanda, the capital of Angola on the West coast, and 
thence across South Central Africa in an oblique direction to 
Quillimane in Eastern Africa 1 . On his arrival at Tete, the 
most inland settlement of the Portuguese, he left there 113 of 
his native attendants lent to him by Sekeletu, and pro- 
ceeded down the Zambesi to Quillimane ; thence, on the 
12th of July, he set sail in Her Majesty's brig " Frolic," 
for the Mauritius, accompanied by Sekwebu 2 , his native 
interpreter, where he arrived on the 12th of August. He 
staid here with Major-General C. M. Hay until November, 
and then came home by way of the Red Sea, arriving in 
England on the 12th of December, 1856. 

His residence at home has been gratifying both to 
him and to the public at large; and has been usefully 
spent. He wisely determined on preparing and publishing 
his book before making any public appearances. To com- 
mit to paper so valuable a mass of information in a manner 
intelligible to all was a matter of first importance ; accident, 
sickness, or death might have prevented him. He has lectured 
many times in public, and has been enthusiastically received. 
Societies have elected him an honorary member of their 
bodies ; towns and cities have presented him with their 

1 Travels, p. 94. 

2 See an account of the death of Sekwebu, note, p. 1 4. 



xxiv LIFE OF DR LIVINGSTONE. 

freedom ; and many are the substantial presents which 
he has received. The government lately appointed him 
British Consul for Tete, Senna, and Quillimane. One 
graceful act performed towards him by Her Majesty, on 
the day of the banquet about to be referred to, is of more 
consequence, in connexion with the success of his expedition, 
than many are aware of, viz. that of giving him an audi- 
ence. He never could well satisfy the minds of the natives 
on the score of not having seen and conversed with his 
chief: which every African expects, and is expected, at some 
time of his life to do. Now that difficulty is removed. 

Great success and applause turn the brains of some per- 
sons; not so with our traveller. With all this well-deserved 
honour, he still remains the kind, quiet, communicative David 
Livingstone, the man of purpose, the man of energy, the man 
of decisive action, and the man of prayer and humble depend- 
ence on his God ; the man who is a study for other men. 

We now turn attention to his future plans. Since we 
have set out with the purpose of hearing him, as much as 
possible, speak for himself, we cannot do better than listen to 
his own statement of these plans, made at the banquet given 
on the 13th of February, 1858 1 , under the auspices of the 
Royal Geographical Society. More than 300 gentlemen, 
comprising names well known, and most illustrious in rank, 
science and art, assembled on this occasion to do him honor. 
Among these were Sir R. I. Murchison, in the chair; the 
Ambassadors of Denmark, Sweden and Norway, many noble- 
men; and some ladies who witnessed the proceedings and 
heard the speeches from the gallery. 

1 This speech is quoted from the Times of the following Monday. 



FAREWELL BANQUET. xxv 

" When I was in Africa I could not but look forward with 
joyous anticipation to my arrival in my native land ; but 
when I remember how I have been received, and when I 
reflect that I am now again returning to the scene of my 
former labours, I am at a loss how to express in words the 
feelings of my heart. In former times, while I was perform- 
ing what I considered to be my duty in Africa, I felt 
great pleasure in the work ; and now, when I perceive that 
all eyes are directed to my future conduct, I feel as if I were 
laid under a load of obligation to do better than I have 
ever done as yet. I expect to find for myself no large 
fortune in that country, nor do I expect to explore any large 
portions of a new country, but I do hope to find through 
that part of the country which I have already explored, a 
pathway by means of the river Zambesi which may lead to 
highlands where Europeans may form a settlement, and where 
by opening up communication and establishing commercial 
intercourse with the natives of Africa, they may slowly, but 
not the less surely, impart to the people of that country the 
knowledge and the inestimable blessings of Christianity. 

I am glad to have connected with me in this expedition my 
gallant friend Captain Bedingfield, who knows not only what 
African rivers are, but also what are African fevers. With 
his aid I may be able to discover the principles of the river 
system of that great continent, and if I find that system to be 
what I think it is, I propose to establish a depot upon the 
Zambesi, and from that station more especially to examine 
into that river system, which, according to the statements 
of the natives, if discovered, would afford a pathway to the 
country beyond, where cotton, indigo, and other raw material 
might be obtained to any amount. 



xxvi LIFE OF DR LIVINGSTONE. 

I am happy also in being accompanied by men experienced 
in geology, in botany, in art, and in photography, who will 
bring back to England reports upon all those points, which I 
alone have attempted to deal with, and with very little means 
at my disposal. 

The success — if I may call it success — which has attended 
my former efforts to open up the country mainly depended upon 
my entering into the feelings and the wishes of the people of 
the interior of Africa. I found that the tribes in the interior 
of that country were just as anxious to have a part of the 
seaboard as I was to open a communication with the interior, 
and I am quite certain of obtaining the co-operation of those 
tribes in my next expedition. Should I succeed in my en- 
deavour, should we be able to open a communication advan- 
tageous to ourselves with the natives of the interior of Africa, 
it would be our great duty to confer upon them those great 
benefits of Christianity which have been bestowed upon 
ourselves. Let us not make the same mistake in Africa that 
we have made in India, but let us take to that country our 
Christianity with us. 

I confess that I am not sanguine enough to hope for any 
speedy result from this expedition, but I am sanguine as to its 
ultimate result. I feel convinced that if we can establish a 
system of free labour in Africa, it will have a most decided 
influence upon slavery throughout the world. Success, how- 
ever, under Providence, depends upon us as Englishmen. I 
look upon Englishmen as perhaps the most freedom-loving 
people in the world, and I think that the kindly feeling 
which has been displayed towards me since my return to my 
native land has arisen from the belief that my efforts might 
at some future time tend to put an end to the odious traffic in 



FAREWELL SPEECH. xxvn 

slaves. England has, unfortunately, been compelled to obtain 
cotton and other raw material from slave States, and has thus 
been the mainstay and support of Slavery in America. Surely, 
then, it follows that if we can succeed in obtaining the raw 
material from other sources than from the slave States of 
America we should strike a heavy blow at the system of 
slavery itself. 

I do not wish to arouse expectations in connexion with 
this expedition which may never be realized, but what I want 
to do is to get in the thin end of the wedge, and then I leave 
it to be driven home by English energy and English spirit. 

I cannot express to you in adequate language the sense 
which I entertain of the kindness which I have received since 
my return to this country, but I can assure you that I shall 
ever retain a grateful recollection of the way you have received 
me on the eve of my departure from my native land. 

Reference has been made in language most kind to Mrs 
Livingstone. Now, it is scarcely fair to ask a man to praise 
his own wife, but I can only say that when I left her at the 
Cape, telling her that I should return in two years, and when 
it happened that I was absent four years and a half, I supposed 
that I should appear before her with a damaged character. I 
was, however, forgiven. My wife will accompany me in this 
expedition, and I believe will be most useful to me. She is 
familiar with the languages of South Africa, she is able to 
work, she is willing to endure, and she well knows that in 
that country one must put one's hand to everything. In 
the country to which I am about to proceed she knows 
that the wife must be the maid-of-all-work within while 
the husband must be the jack- of- all-trades without, and 



xxviii LIFE OF DR LIVINGSTONE. 

glad am I indeed that I am to be accompanied by my 
guardian angel. Allow me now to say just one word in 
reference to our chairman ; let me just tell you that I found 
a few days back an abstract from an address which he 
delivered to the Geographical Society in 1852, and which 
he had the assurance to send to me. In that address my 
distinguished friend foreshadowed a great portion of those 
discoveries which I subsequently made, and all I can now 
say is that I hope he will not do the same thing again." 

This characteristic speech gives a complete account of our 
traveller's future plans in Africa. 

As it regards the expedition which has just sailed from 
our shores, it is a very complete one. 

Her Majesty's Government has granted £5000 wherewith 
to defray its expenses. The proposal for this grant was 
enthusiastically received in the House of Commons ; Lord 
Clarendon has been particularly solicitous about Dr Living- 
stone's welfare and future success. 

The President, Council, and members of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society have been active in assisting this expedi- 
tion. At a crowded meeting held early in January at Bur- 
lington House, Sir R. I. Murchison in the chair, a communi- 
cation was made to the meeting, by the desire of Lord 
Clarendon, expressing a wish that the Council would submit 
to the Foreign- office suggestions with reference to the expedi- 
tion. Dr Livingstone had explained to the Council his own 
plan of operations, and had laid before it the names of those 
whom he proposed should accompany him : and a resolution 
had been passed, expressing their entire approbation of his 
project. 



THE NEW EXPEDITION. xxix 

His associates are Commander Bedingfield, R.N., well 
known for his exploration of the Congo and other African 
rivers ; Dr Kirk, M.D., of Edinburgh, and botanist ; Mr R. 
Thornton, of the School of Mines, as mining geologist ; Mr 
T. Baines, as artist, for which position he is well qualified 
by his previous experience in Africa, and his travels in 
North Australia; Mr Rae, as engineer of the launch; and 
Dr Livingstone's brother, who will take charge of the estab- 
lishment which it is proposed to fix for a time at the conflu- 
ence of one of the tributaries of the Zambesi. 

In consequence of the unhealthiness of the delta of the 
Zambesi, for about 250 miles below Tete, the Council ex- 
pressed a wish that the expedition should be conveyed to Tete 
in a decked steam-vessel, of light draught, and that the steam 
launch should only carry them on from that point, or above 
Tete. 

These plans as far as possible will be carried out. 

A beautiful iron steam launch was constructed by Mr John 
Macgregor Laird, at his Birkenhead Works, by order of the 
government, for the purposes of the expedition. This vessel 
is 75 feet long, 8 broad, and 3 deep; being in the shape of a 
large flat-bottomed canoe, having both ends alike, and covered 
in with awnings. Her hull is made in three compact water- 
tight sections, with a curved keel; the draught of water being- 
only 14 inches 1 . 

The expedition set sail from Liverpool, on Wednesday 
10th of March, on board the screw steam-ship Pearl, under 

1 There is an admirable lithograph of this launch published by 
Mr S. Walters, Liverpool : as also a description and wood-cut of it in 
the Illustrated News, of March 6th ult. 



xxx LIFE OF DR LIVINGSTONE. 

the command of Captain Bedingfield, the launch being taken 
on board in three pieces. 

The Pearl will take them as far as possible up the Zambesi, 
and then leave them to God's merciful Providence and to their 
own resources. 

In a letter dated Sierra Leone, 30th March, addressed to 
Sir R. I. Murchison, Dr Livingstone speaks cheerfully of the 
well-being and happy prospects of the whole party ; stating 
that they were going on immediately to the Cape. 

We have now brought this Memoir up to the present 
moment. Surely the prayers of multitudes will ascend to 
God for the success of this undertaking. True philanthropy, 
the advancement of science, and the opening up of Africa to 
Commerce and Christianity are its avowed and real objects; 
what can be nobler ? This little book finds its way into the 
world, just after our traveller and his companions have 
departed from their native shores on this mission. God only 
knows the result, and He doeth all things well. If they ever 
return to this country, the editor of this book as well as 
many who read it may be silent in the grave. While we 
wish for Dr Livingstone and his companions God Speed, 
and pray for success and temporal and eternal blessings for 
all; let us, in remembering our latter end, "strive to enter in 
at the strait gate," in the prayerful hope of meeting them 
and many Central Africans around God's throne in heaven. 

THERE IS PEACE, THERE IS HAPPINESS, there "THE WICKED 
CEASE FROM TROUBLING, AND THE WEARY ARE AT REST." 



PREFATORY LETTER 



THE REV. ADAM SEDGWICK, M.A., F.E.S. 

VICE-MASTER OF TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE. 



Trinity College, Cambridge, 

March 16, 1858. 



My Dear Sir, 



A few days after Dr Livingstone's visit to Cam- 
bridge, you informed me that you were about to publish the 
Reports of the two Addresses he had made (in the Senate- 
House and Town-Hall), with some notes and explanatory 
matter of your own. At the same time you asked me to 
write an account of what took place in our Senate- House, on 
the occasion of his Address to the University, with any com- 
ments I might think fit to offer for the use of your little 
Volume. I promised to comply with your request ; for you 
told me that by so doing I should gratify my honoured friend 
Dr Livingstone: but my prefatory letter, I added, must be 
short; as I disclaimed all purpose of writing a formal review 
of Dr Livingstone's labours. I should indeed have thought 
such a task delightful, had I possessed health and leisure for 
its performance ; but I had neither the one nor the other. 

Three months have passed away since you first spoke 
to me of your intended publication. The delay cannot be 
a cause of regret to you if it has enabled you to improve 
the matter of your work. For your subject is not one of 
a momentary and local interest; but is connected with the 
advance of physical knowledge; and, under God's blessing, 
with the progress of humanity and Christian truth. You 
now tell me that, with the exception of a few pages, your 
work is all in type; and you again claim my promise. I 
ought to be ashamed of my long delay were I not able to 
reply, that, after the duties of the Michaelmas term were 
ended, my health for many weeks was in a state which made 

3 



ii PREFATORY LETTER. 

the simple task of writing such a letter as this almost im- 
possible. 

It may seem incongruous that I should write a preface to 
a work with which (excepting the two newspaper Reports) I 
am still unacquainted. But on this score, after my conversa- 
tions with yourself, I think that I am quite secure from 
blame. As to the baleful misery and deadly sin wrought by 
the slave-dealer in Africa, your opinions do not differ from 
those I have been taught to hold from the days of my 
childhood. If you hope, in however humble a degree, to 
make Dr Livingstone's great labours and discoveries more 
widely known — to forward (by a direct appeal to what he has 
done) the great and good cause of civilization, brotherly love, 
and Christian truth— and to encourage the Missionary of the 
Gospel in carrying the message of peace to poor benighted 
Africa ; — in all such hopes you have the heartfelt sympathy 
of many a fellow-Christian who will wish God speed to your 
little Volume. 

Dr Livingstone, if I mistake not, came to Cambridge 
as your guest, on Monday, December the 3rd. The next 
morning he addressed, in the Senate-house, a very large 
audience composed of the resident Graduates and Under- 
graduates of the University, and of many visitors from the 
Town and neighbourhood. Under the sanction of a Grace 
of the Senate this building had been hastily prepared for 
his reception by an order of the Vice- Chancellor, who pre- 
sided at the Meeting. On the same day he dined in the 
Hall of Trinity College, when the Master presided; and 
he rested for the night at the Master's Lodge. The day 
following (Dec. 5th), with the sanction of the Mayor and 
Corporation, he addressed a very crowded audience in the 
Town Hall; and he afterwards dined a second time in the 
Hall of Trinity College. In the course of the same evening he 
took leave of us, to our great sorrow; some of us believing that 
we should never see his face again. 



PREFATORY LETTER. in 

In the long period of my academic life I have many times 
been present in our Senate-House, on occasions of joyful excite- 
ment. The few amongst us who remember the early years 01 
this century cannot now forget the thoughts which filled the 
national heart, if not with fear, at least with sorrow and deep 
anxiety: for England saw nation after nation falling before 
the sword of the first Napoleon; till at length she stood alone 
with all the great powers of Europe combined in league 
against her. But a brighter season followed. Europe regained 
its freedom from military domination; and England, with 
her institutions safe and her soil inviolate, seemed to stand on 
a pinnacle of glory. 

Again and again, I have seen those good stout-hearted men 
who, under God, had helped to work out the deliverance of 
Europe from military servitude, greeted in the Senate-House 
with our loudest acclamations. I have been present at four 
Installation Festivals; when we met to do honour to the good 
men whom by our free votes we had placed at the head of the 
University. All these were occasions of honest and great 
excitement. 

The last installation festival was graced and honoured by 
the presence of our Sovereign. To her was due the first 
homage of the University; and it was given by us not grudg- 
ingly, but with a loyalty that carried us almost beyond our- 
selves, and drew from us the most fervent gratulations that 
affectionate and grateful subjects are permitted to exhibit in 
the presence of their Sovereign. Nor did we, during that 
season of loyalty and joy, forget our youthful Chancellor, or 
abate one jot of the honour due to him. We greeted him as 
one placed by our free choice in the highest Office of the 
University; as the Consort of our Queen; as the Father of the 
future Sovereign of England; as a man well trained in academic 
learning, to whose wisdom we might look for counsel in any 
times of difficulty, and to whose eloquence and influence we 
might look for protection in an hour of danger. 

3—2 



iv PREFATORY LETTER. 

On none of the public festivals, to which I have just 
alluded, were the gratulations of the University more honest 
and true-hearted than those which were offered to Dr Living- 
stone. He came amongst us without any long notes of pre- 
paration, without any pageant or eloquence to charm and 
captivate our senses. He stood before us — a plain, single- 
minded, cheerful man — somewhat attenuated by years of 
toil, and with a face tinged by the sun of Africa: and he 
addressed us in unadorned and simple words; said nothing 
that savoured of self-glory; and when he told us of what he 
had done, during the sixteen years that were gone, and what 
he hoped, with God's blessing, to do for the cause of truth 
and the good of his fellow- creatures in Africa, in years to come, 
he more than once exclaimed in earnest truth, that "he had 
made no sacrifice" — that he had but done a duty to which he 
had been called by outward circumstances — that he had only 
obeyed an impulse which he felt within himself, and had the 
sanction of his conscience. 

We received him, therefore, as a Christian brother, who 
having grappled manfully with great dangers and overcome 
them, had returned to his home after long years of absence : 
and while we listened to the tale that he had to tell, there arose 
in the hearts of all the listeners a fervent hope, that the hand of 
God which had so long upheld him would uphold him still, 
and help him to carry out the great work of Christian love 
that was still before him. In such words as these I believe 
that I am truly interpreting the sentiments of the University 
the day that they met Dr Livingstone in the Senate-House. 

All who that day assembled to meet him, and listen to his 
address, had heard something of his early labours ; and there 
was a smaller number who had then read his Missionary 
Travels and Researches in South Africa. We knew that he 
was a man of humble birth, and that he had learnt the first 
lessons of Christian truth from the teaching and example of 
his parents. We knew that, for years of his early life he had 



PREFATORY LETTER. v 

to gain his daily bread by the labour of his hands — that after 
the fatigues of the day, even in his boyhood, he had with 
unconquerable energy sought after many fountains of useful 
knowledge and drunk of their waters — that he had stolen 
from the night the short hours of study the day did not 
afford him — that, as he advanced in years, he had learnt to 
carry on his studies in moments of time, snatched in the crowd 
and toil and din of a manufactory, and amidst interruptions 
which, to wills less resolute., would have made any continued 
exercise of serious thought impossible. We knew that, as he 
improved in manual skill, and gained higher wages, he set 
apart a larger sum for study — that he made good progress in 
the classic tongues — that he laid the foundation of sound 
knowledge in several important branches of natural science, 
and gradually won his way by his own energy, and " with- 
out receiving a farthing's aid from any one" (and I may add, 
not without some hinderances in early life, on the part of 
those whom he most loved and honoured), — that he was at 
length enabled to attend three important Classes in the Uni- 
versity of Glasgow as a regular student, and in the end became 
a Licentiate of the Faculty of Physic and Surgery. Such were 
the early years of the man who came to address us, after his 
labours of love and long wanderings in South Africa. 

His boyish studies may have been carried on without any 
Jong-sighted visions of what the future had in store for him : 
but he never quite forgot those early parental lessons which 
contained the good seed of all the fruits of his after life. 
There may, during his daily and nightly toils, have been a 
short period in which he ran the risk, like many other men, 
of forgetting that he was a Christian. But as he advanced in 
mature knowledge and grew in stature, he became, through 
God's blessing, more and more, in heart and life and firm 
conviction, a good religious man. He became a man of large 
benevolence, of firm faith, and of a grand catholicity of spirit. 
He believed that all the families upon earth are God's children, 



vi PREFATORY LETTER. 

and heirs of His covenanted mercies; that the command to 
spread^ the light of the Gospel through all the nations under 
heaven had passed downwards on every honest Christian; and 
that every son of man who passed under the Christian name 
ought to receive the command as delivered to himself, and act 
upon it according to the measure of his capacity and the 
means that God had placed within his hands. 

Nor were his views of natural knowledge less wide and 
generous. For he believed, with unshaken faith, in the ruling 
providence of God — the Creator of all worlds and of the laws 
whereby they are upheld: and, hence, he also believed, that 
all true natural and material knowledge is but a knowledge of 
one portion of the will of our Creator embodied in His works. 
Hence, also, he practically believed that no parts of true 
knowledge, whether sacred or profane, can, when rightly 
used, ever be in mutual antagonism: nay, rather, that con- 
sidered as a whole, they are at once the manifestation of our 
Maker's glory and implements of good to our fellow-men. 
With a faith like this acting on a brave heart; with the free 
spirit of an honest Christian; with good stores of knowledge 
which he longed to spread among his ignorant and suffering 
fellow-creatures ; with a benevolence and love that made his 
heart yearn towards the poor degraded and persecuted inha- 
bitants of heathen lands ; with feelings and endowments such 
as these, we cannot wonder that he put aside any dreams of 
worldly ambition in his own country (if such he ever had), 
and sought to devote his life to the humble duties of a Chris- 
tian Missionary. No man, with powers like those of young 
Livingstone, can be quite unconscious of them. When a boy 
he may have dreamed of foreign lands without aim or pur- 
pose. When come to manhood, under the promptings of his 
conscience, he resolved, as we have seen, humbly to devote all 
the powers which God had given him, and by which he had 
risen to what he then was, to the service of his Redeemer 
and to the spread of light in the lands of heathen darkness. 



PREFATORY LETTER. vii 

I have dwelt on this passage of his life, hecause he told ua 
in his Address that he came among us as a Christian Mission- 
ary; and in that capacity asked us for our help and counsel 
and sympathy. We are not permitted now to look for mi- 
racles in the natural world; and no great tasks (those espe- 
cially that are employed in changing the habits and opinions 
of men, in influencing their lives, and in leading them from 
evil to good) can ever be well done without much preparation 
and previous thought, and without great and long-continued 
labour. It would not, I think, be too much to affirm, that 
all the early days of Livingstone's life, from his childhood up- 
wards, were, under Providence, a preparation for his missionary 
labours in South Africa. 

Disappointed in his early hopes of beginning his work in 
China, he went out (under an engagement to the London Mis- 
sionary Society) to South Africa; landed at Cape Town in 
1840; without needless delay went up the country; and soon 
began his labour of love among the Natives. After numberless 
toils and some strange changes of fortune, but never without 
hope and good courage and trust in God, he finally com- 
pleted his great task at the mouth of the Zambesi, on the 12th 
of July, 1856: and then, by the Mauritius and the Red Sea 
he found his w T ay back to England. In the letter I am now 
writing, I can do little more than allude to the works 
by which he fulfilled his mission during these sixteen event- 
ful years: the details may be read and studied in his 
published volume. But I may dwell, through one or two 
pages, on the manner in which he began his great task, and 
how he carried it forward during the first twelve years of his 
wanderings in Africa. 

For six months he shut himself out from all direct inter- 
course with civilized men. He lived among the Natives as 
their brother, till he gradually became familiar with their lan- 
guage, their wants, their habits of thought, and all that made 
them what they were — the poor degraded children of untaught 



viii PREFATORY LETTER. 

nature. Some of them might have seen and learnt to fear, 
and perhaps to hate, the civilized men called Christian. For 
it is certain that men, called Christian, living on the frontier 
lines of savage lands (and the remark applies to no line more than 
that which forms the northern skirt of the Cape Colonies), while 
they perhaps thank God that they are not as the poor Savage 
who is before them, are seldom known to hold out a hand to lift 
him from the earth : nay, rather, are ever ready to make him 
the enslaved minister of their base and selfish appetites. 

With such apostles, civilization and Christian truth can 
never make one step of good progress. Nay, such men will 
dare to tell us (and thousands have been ready to believe the 
tale, and even good men have listened to it) that when sunk 
below a certain level, of which they make themselves the 
judges, no power under heaven can reclaim the Savage — that 
he is doomed to death by the God who created him — that 
over him the promises of the Gospel have passed without any 
meaning — that by the laws of nature, which are the voice of 
God, he is predestined to be torn out of the soil like a rank 
weed, or slaughtered like a wild beast of the forest. 

Such was not the faith of Livingstone. He taught the 
poor Africans to love him and to trust him, because he treated 
them with confidence and love. He visited them in their 
wants ; he healed them in their sickness ; he taught them the 
first simple lessons of Christian truth. With the Natives who 
had reached the years of manhood he made but slow progress. 
Some of their Chiefs were, however, won over to the truth. 
But while the greater number heard him with a kind of 
torpid apathy, they learnt to honour and trust him ; and 
they were willing that he should teach his lessons to their 
children. With the children he made far better progress, 
while he taught them the simple lessons of the Gospel, awak- 
ened their affections, and trained them in the humble duties of 
a Christian life. During this period his Wife (a daughter of 
Mr Moffat, the oldest and greatest of all the Missionaries of 



PREFATORY LETTER. ix 

the Gospel to South Africa,) became his comforter and helper 
in these good offices of love and ministerial duty. At length 
a little vineyard was planted by him at Kolobeng and in the 
country near the south-eastern skirts of the great Kalahari 
desert, which promised to spread its fruit and branches far 
and wide in South Africa. 

Nor did he, during these years, forget the studies of his 
earlier life, or shut his eyes to that goodly book of nature 
which never ceased to charm him. His pages teem with 
information and good suggestions; to be worked out, we trust, 
and turned to profit, by those who may hereafter follow in 
his steps. In reading some of his plain unadorned descrip- 
tions, which are almost sublime from their simple truthful- 
ness, we might fancy that we were wandering with him 
through a wild untamed world of an antique fashion (like 
that sometimes painted by geologists) before man had been 
placed upon it, and begun his works of change. 

In 1849, he for the first time crossed a part of the great 
Kalahari desert, and visited the lake Ngami. 

His journal is here crowded with matters of deep interest 
to a moralist or a naturalist — to one who can study human 
nature in its lowest degradation, yet even there can find mar- 
vellous traces of ingenuity and of aspirations after a higher and 
better life; — or to another who rejoices to view the face of the 
natural world in its extremes of wild luxuriance and sterility ; 
yet in both extremes capable of supporting millions of rational 
beings when man has driven off the ponderous monsters that 
are now stalking on the surface, and obeyed the command of 
his Maker in subduing it. 

The next year (1850) he made another northern excursion 
and reached the great river Zambesi. It was then that he 
became personally known to Sebituane, the conqueror and 
Chief of all the neighbouring country. He was everywhere 
received with fresh confidence and kindness. The report of 
his labours of love had gone before him, and no one was 



x PREFATORY LETTER. 

afraid to trust him: but he learnt, to his dismay, that the 
slave- dealer — the deadly minister of evil — had in the preced- 
ing year found his way for the first time into a district under 
the great Chiefs authority. To arrest a deadly pestilence 
before it had spread its moral poison through the country — 
to teach the poor African that he might, without danger or 
broil or bloodshed, carry on a good commerce with civilized 
man without committing it to the brutal slave- dealer — to ex- 
tend the ground of Christian Missions — to give a movement to 
civilized commerce along the course of the great Zambesi, and 
with it to stir up the honest zeal of good true-hearted men, 
who, under Providence, might bring the light of civilization 
and Christian truth to central Africa — these were the thoughts 
that moved the heart and mind of Livingstone as he returned 
southward to his home and Christian flock. 

But a black cloud was hanging over the infant Church 
that was founded by Livingstone. Crowds of lawless Boers 
came, during the Caffre wars, to settle on the outskirts of the 
Bechuana country. They called themselves Protestant Chris- 
tians; and they had learnt to cull out from the Old Testament 
some words which appeared to tell them that the heathen 
were their inheritance, or seemed to sanction their deeds of 
violence and aggression against the poor African. But their 
senses were close-shut to the teaching of the Gospel — to its 
message of peace and love to every son of man, and to all 
nations under heaven. Many of these Boers had been trained 
in deeds of blood before, and during, the Caffre wars. Many 
had been open rebels against the central authorities at the 
Cape. All lawless men, deserters and bad spirits, were 
drawn towards them. By a disastrous treaty (for how can 
any compromise with ignorant and lawless rebels be other- 
wise than disastrous ?) they gained a kind of political inde- 
pendence. In words, indeed, they were bound to suppress 
slavery and to give a free passage from the Cape Colonies to 
the tribes in Central Africa: but conditions, with lawless 



PREFATORY LETTER. xi 

men, are a dead letter and a mockery. Aggression on ag- 
gression followed; the Negro became no better than a slave 
to the neighbouring Boers : and to complete their work, they 
invaded the Bechuana country in 1852; ruined the Christian 
settlement of Kolobeng; butchered many of the adults, and 
swept off two hundred school-children into slavery. All 
Dr Livingstone's property was destroyed or plundered; his 
house was a heap of ruins ; his books were torn and scattered 
to the winds. His Christian harvest w T as gone ; and the field 
in which he had laboured for ten years was made desolate. 
All means of peacefully carrying on his mission at Kolobeng 
were at an end. 

A man of less resolute will, and less firm trust in Pro- 
vidence, might well have despaired of doing more good work in 
Africa. But hope and courage never left the heart of Living- 
stone. He conducted his wife and children to Cape-Town, 
and procured for them a passage to England. " Thus " (to use 
his own words) "he had for the first time during eleven years 
revisited the scenes of civilization." He improved himself in 
the work of scientific observation, under the direction of the 
Royal Astronomer at the Cape. He prepared himself in every 
way (within his means) which zeal and prudence and long 
experience could point out to him. To their honour, be it 
told, he had the cordial sanction of the London Missionary 
Society in the great work that was now before him ; and in 
carrying it on, he was left to his uncontrolled discretion. 
They had found the right man for their work, and they had 
the heart to trust him. 

Thus fortified, he turned his face once more, in good hope, 
towards Central Africa : and in four years of danger and 
great toil he realized the work which rose within his mind, 
two years before, when he first saw the great Zambesi, and 
first heard that the slave-dealer — the pest of Africa — had at 
length found his way into the country of the Makololo. 
From the center of South Africa he did "establish a highway" 



xii PREFATORY LETTER. 

to its eastern and western shores, which other men may 
follow : and he has now gone back from England in the fervent 
hope that Christian men may learn to carry on a righteous 
commerce along this " highway ;" and that Africa may learn 
to bless the stranger who comes to visit her, and to know 
that she may procure the precious goods of the white man at 
a better rate than giving him in exchange the life and blood 
of her own children. 

Some readers of this letter may think it strange that I 
have written so much about Dr Livingstone's earlier life, and 
passed over, with such brief notice, his almost super-human 
labours during his two journeys of discovery from Linyanti 
to the eastern and western coasts of Africa. But I do not 
profess to write a review of his admirable Volume. Thou- 
sands will delight to read his history after he left Cape Town 
in 1852. But in the long succession of trying incidents there 
recorded — in the varied aspects of wild untamed nature, and of 
man as wild as the land in which he dwells, yet struggling 
and looking upward for something better — a reader may per- 
haps forget that Livingstone travelled and did all his work as 
a Christian Missionary; and overlook the causes which, with 
God's blessing, helped him to triumph over every danger that 
beset him on his way. If his early life was a preparation 
for his mission to South Africa ; with still more literal truth 
we may affirm that his missionary life of twelve years helped 
to arm him, in mind and hand, for the good work which he 
afterwards accomplished: and we may well doubt whether in 
all Europe there was another man who could have had the 
heart to undertake, and the head to finish the good work that 
he has done. 

Let us just consider the powers he brought to bear upon 
the task. He was a man of a wiry frame that was fitted 
for much endurance; of great physical courage; of much 
fore-thought and prudence; of a strong and steadfast will 
in carrying out the purpose of his heart; of a cheerful and 



PREFATORY LETTER. xiii 

hopeful temper; of ample love towards his fellow-creatures, 
and a hatred of that brutalizing policy by which millions of 
the human family are made the hopeless bond -slaves of their 
brethren, and shut out from the blessings which God has in 
ample store for all his children; of a keen relish for natural 
beauty, and a love of natural knowledge which kept him 
alive in all his wanderings, and helped to drive away any 
sinking of spirit that might have been his death; of a firm 
trust in Providence; of a firm belief that, with a good 
conscience, he was doing a work of solemn obligation, and 
carrying out, as best he could, a commission which, through 
God's will, had been intrusted to his hands. Personally, then, 
he had no ground of fear; and he had the best ground of hope, 
whatever might be the issue of his labour. 

Qualities like these might, perhaps, have been found in 
some other men. But where are we to find another who 
combined these gifts with twelve years of familiar intercourse 
with the children of South Africa; who could speak their 
prevailing dialect like one of themselves; who was inured to 
their climate; who knew their manners, superstitions and 
affections; who knew how to control their savage passions, in 
times of perilous excitement, by reasons they could compre- 
hend; who by long acts of kindness had been training them 
from evil to good; who passed among them as a Father; 
wdiom they had learnt to trust as a friend and benefactor? 
Every good practical work must have a firm basis to rest 
upon. Livingstone's operations were based upon his long- 
labours of love, on the good- will and trust he had gained 
among the Natives, and on the power of persuasion he had, 
by long experience, gained over their Chiefs. In this power 
he trusted, and in the time of need it did not disappoint him. 

After a journey from Cape Town of eleven months, in the 
well-known carriage (the ponderous bullock- waggon of South 
Africa), he reached Linyanti, the capital of Makololo, in May 
1853. The Chapters in which he describes this long journey 



xiv PREFATORY LETTER. 

are among the most interesting of his Volume. His pages are 
pregnant with good suggestions, and rilled with objects of most 
lively interest. Sebituane was dead. But his successor, Se- 
keletu, received our Missionary with unhesitating kindness: 
and many were the rude, but honest, proofs of his good-will. 
During a halt at Linyanti, and a tour of nine weeks on the 
Leeambye, our Author tells us " that he had been in closer 
contact with heathenism than he had ever been before/' and 
strange are the pictures of savage life which he has put be- 
fore us. 

As he had in good hope anticipated, when he left Cape 
Town, he readily persuaded Sekeletu to support him in his 
plan of discovery. The Makololo were ready for the enter- 
prise, and anxious for honest commerce with the " children of 
the sea" — the white men of the far west. The question was 
discussed in public. They counted the cost and knew the 
danger; but the popular voice was won : and 27 men (of 
six distinct tribes, and familiar with several dialects of 
South Africa) were equipped for the expedition — not as slaves 
or hired servants, but as companions and helpers to Dr 
Livingstone, in an object as eagerly desired by the great 
Chief and many of his people, as by himself. 

Thus supported he began his perilous journey up the 
Leeambye, in November, 1853, " As I had always believed," 
he tells us, " that, if we serve God at all, it ought to be done 
in a manly way, I wrote to my brother, commending our little 
girl to his care, as I was determined to succeed or perish in 
the attempt to open up this part of Africa. The Boers, by 
taking possession of all my goods, had saved me the trouble 
of making a will; and considering the light heart now left in 
my bosom, and some faint efforts to perform the duty of 
Christian forgiveness, I felt that it was better to be one of the 
plundered party than one of the plunderers." The limits of 
this letter prevent me from making a longer extract. 

With stout hearts this little crew ascended the upper 



PREFATORY LETTER. xv 

Zambesi (orLeeambye) — one part in canoes, and the other part 
on foot or on riding-oxen — bearing Sekeletu's ivory for the 
market of Loanda, and such light baggage as they were able 
to carry for their own support in their long and perilous 
journey. In this way they passed through the whole of the 
Barotse valley, and at length entered on a country that owed 
no allegiance to Sekeletu. They afterwards quitted the Zam- 
besi, and ascended the Leeba, a large tributary river which 
led them towards the north-west. Continuing their onward 
course, among tribes who did not obstruct them, but gave 
them generous and friendly help, they were induced (on the 
10th of February, 1854) to leave their canoes behind: and 
then, after crossing vast swampy places and many tributary 
streams that fall to the left bank of the Leeba, they slowly 
worked their way; and, on the 20th of February, 1854, came 
upon the water-shed of South Africa. 

This water-shed is not a mountain-chain — sending its brawl- 
ing torrents, on the one side towards the Atlantic, and on the 
other towards the Indian seas — but is represented by a vast 
table-land which stretches through many degrees of latitude; 
and (north of the Zambesi) through many degrees of longitude; 
and is crowned, here and there, with great swamps and tangled 
and almost impenetrable forests, or by shallow lakes which 
are fringed with the rankest tropical vegetation. From be- 
neath these swampy lands ooze out those waters which form 
the northern feeders of the great Zambesi : — not in dark brown 
streams, like those which come from the mountain-bogs of the 
British Isles, but in clear pellucid water which has filtered 
through the uncarbonized roots and grass of the upper plains. 

Such appears to be the nature of the physical boundary 
which stretches far and wide across a large portion of the con- 
tinent, and separates those central parts of South Africa, from 
which our travellers started, from the unexplored regions ex- 
tending towards the north. How far the table-land extends 
in that direction, and whether it does not blend itself with, 



xvi PREFATORY LETTER. 

and pass into, the physical structure of Northern Africa, are 
questions to be, we trust, hereafter settled. Its greatest height 
above the sea, along the track taken by Dr Livingstone, is 
about 5,000 feet. Its height at the swampy lake Dilolo, 
which is precisely on one part of the summit-level, is not 
more than 4,000 feet. 

In their progress up the Zambesi, the land was almost 
featureless. Great damp plains — flooded after the fall of the 
tropical rains — skirt the river-banks. Ant-hills (as large, how- 
ever, as hay-stacks) are the pigmy mountains of the neigh- 
bouring lands ; and they rise, during the floods, like oases 
out of the deserts of water. Hence these ant-hills are often 
the special seats of human life and cultivation. Up the Leeba, 
and almost to the water-shed, the country improves in feature. 
Ridges of high land were seen towards the east, which might 
deserve the name of hills: and among the valleys that de- 
scended from these hills, nature seemed to revel, here and there, 
in her most gorgeous forms of tropical vegetation. Still there 
were the same prevailing characters. Hank grasses, often rising 
above the heads of those who were on ox-back — a dull swampy 
surface — streams as clear as crystal emerging from the upper 
swamps — and a dismal rising vapour, bearing with it a 
malaria most oppressive to the strength and senses. 

Spite of all difficulties, and spite of attacks of fever, which 
almost bent him to the ground, Dr Livingstone moved on- 
wards — kept alive by a spirit of enterprise — by hope and good 
courage which never left him — and above all by a trust in 
Providence, and a firm belief that he was engaged in a task 
of solemn duty, which, under God's blessing, might bring good 
to his fellow-men. His loyal crew partook of a portion of 
their leader's spirit, and were hardly heard to utter a murmur 
during the long months of their daily toils; and they never 
flinched from their duty. 

But if there was much, along the Zambesi, to weigh down 
the spirits, there was, also, much to raise them up. Elephants 



PREFATORY LETTER. xvii 

and zebras ; herds of buffaloes, gnus, water-antelopes, and other 
ruminants, were the inviting game of the neighbouring country. 
"Alligators (Crocodiles?) in prodigious numbers/' sometimes 
with their attendant watch-birds, might be seen near the banks of 
the great river. Shoals of hippopotami so filled its waters, that 
in some places it required skill and caution to steer the canoes 
clear of them, and avoid their lumbering carcases when they 
were disturbed and rose suddenly towards the surface. Some- 
times the females were found moving through the water, and 
bearing their young (gipsy-fashion) on their backs. Strange 
wading birds were seen along the shoals. The moping ibis of 
Egypt was found upon the river banks. Flocks of black 
geese, and multitudes of water-fowl were rising continually 
before them. All nature seemed to swarm with life; and 
each creature to be fitted for its work and element. 

As our travellers ascended the Leeba, the game on which 
they fed became less and less abundant. The Natives had 
procured fire-arms, by wretched bargains with the slave-dealer, 
and had driven the larger animals into the recesses of the 
forest. Hence, while Dr Livingstone and his brave followers 
crossed to the western side of the water-shed (and for six 
weeks afterwards), they had to sleep upon the damp ground, 
to live generally on manioc (a miserable tasteless innutritious 
food, like starch), and sometimes to endure the severe pains of 
hunger. Through dire necessity they had to slaughter several 
of the oxen which carried them and their baggage and the 
tusks Sekeletu had sent with them for the market of the far 
west. 

But I must not, in this sketch, pass over the Native 
families with whom they held intercourse on their way. 
From the bottom to the top of the Barotse valley they met 
with every mark of good-will and kindness which the humble 
negro could show to strangers. Their wants were all supplied 
— their food was abundant — and they suffered nothing but 
what inevitably sprang from fatigue and an oppressive climate. 

4 



xviii PREFATORY LETTER. 

Let it not be said that these, most welcome proofs of kindness, 
on the part of the Natives, arose from fear of Sekeletu whom 
they acknowledged as their Chief: for Dr Livingstone and his 
whole crew met with men of the same hospitable and con- 
fiding temper, far beyond the authority of Sekeletu — even to 
the summit of that high table-land which parts the waters of 
the Congo and the Zambesi. 

A man who rejoices in faithful pictures of manners, dis- 
played by the rude untaught children of nature; who loves to 
turn his thoughts to the forms of government by which they 
are held in social union and obedience to their Chiefs ; to their 
superstitious and early aspirations after a higher life ; to the 
first rude dawnings of those passions and affections by which 
they may be trained to good or evil: — such a man will delight 
in the voyage of Livingstone along the Zambesi and the 
Leeba, and his descriptions of the courts (for such they may 
be called) of Shinte and Katema. We may laugh at the 
domestic manners, and the grotesque ceremonials of the black 
men. We may, perhaps, be shocked at the gods they igno- 
rantly worship and the rude symbols of their idolatry. We 
may pity their ill-placed confidence in trials by ordeal — fatal 
more often to the innocent than the guilty. We may, perhaps, 
laugh again at their belief in the transmigration of souls ; 
when we read that there are Tribes, on the banks of the Lower 
Zambesi, who dare not hunt the lion, lest in so doing they 
should be hunting one who had in former times been their 
Chief. We may, perhaps, think with self-satisfied scorn 
of their simple faith in witchcraft, charms and sorceries, and 
their implicit trust in quacks and rain-doctors. 

These blind feelings after knowledge — these rude distor- 
tions of the human soul in thought and deed — were not 
matters of mockery to Livingstone. They gave him a lesson, 
and he knew how to read it. They prove, by a test drawn 
from an extreme case, that the poor African is our untaught 
Brother, created by the God who made us; and knit toge- 



PREFATORY LETTER, xix 

ther, soul as well as body, out of elements undistinguishable 
from our own. We may look at the fantastical decorations 
of his outer person; such, for example, as the head-dresses 
figured in the Missionary Travels. There is not one among 
them comparable in absurdity to those monstrous stacks of 
perfumed and powdered hair that were worn last century by 
the 'fairest daughters of England. There is no end to the 
fooleries of fashion, whatever may be the condition of society, 
however high or low may be its grade. Even in this much 
boasted nineteenth century, were a man dropped amongst us, 
after a few years of absence from the earth, he might well 
think that a vile wizard had transformed the lower half of 
our fair sisters into the semblance of some ponderous Pachy- 
derm; and that they were doing their best to conceal this 
monstrous metamorphosis by hoops of iron and ugly outworks 
of flounce and furbelow. 

If Africa have its wretched slave-gangs; we once had 
slaves in England, and sent them in gangs to the markets of 
civilized Europe. If Africa have now its miserable ordeals ; 
we once had our trials by ordeal, long after we had risen on 
the social scale very far above the rank of savages. Nay, 
within my memory, an accused Englishman claimed the right 
of appeal to wager of battle — as one of the surviving remnants 
of a legal form of ordeal. How long is it since our statute- 
book ceased to be blackened by capital enactments against 
witchcraft; and our jail-deliveries disgraced by horrible acts 
of torture inflicted (after all the solemn formalities of law) 
upon poor decrepit unoffending English women? If Africa 
have its quacks, we too have a plentiful crop from the same 
vile seed. If we have no rain-doctors (and the fickle ele- 
ments would spoil their practice were they here), we have 
our rain-prophets, and our weather-wise impostors, in plenty; 
who year by year know how to sell their atmospheric oracles 
to thousands. And as to charms and other credulous fooleries 
of the poor African ; we can surely match him in our table- 

4—2 



xx PREFATORY LETTER. 

turnings, and our spirit-rappings, and our purblind acceptance 
of the worst impostures of clairvoyance. The follies and sins 
of civilised men are, from pure shame, partly trimmed and 
coloured in a way to conceal or lessen their deformity, and 
partly hidden in darkness : but the faults of the poor savage 
stand out in full relief and in the light of day. 

A good lesson, I repeat, may be drawn from the pages of 
Livingstone — not from those only which tell us of the fidelity 
and the honesty and the kindness of the poor African ; but 
those also which tell us of his faults and follies. Ignorant 
and degraded as he is, he is still our Brother, and the child 
of the great God who made us. If this be so, cold must be 
the heart and stunted the faith of that Christian man, who 
can believe that the glorious promises of the Gospel have no 
application to one quarter of the world, and that the " Sun 
of righteousness " is never meant to shine on the dark portions 
of benighted Africa. 

Before I go on, let me quote a few lines from one of 
the golden pages of Dr Livingstone. Describing his ascent 
through the Barotse valley he tells us, " that the welkin rings 
with the singing of birds, which is not so delightful as the 
notes of birds at home, because I have not been familiar with 
them from infancy. The notes here, however, strike the mind 
by their loudness and variety, as the wellings forth from 
joyous hearts of praise to Him who fills them with overflowing 
gladness. All of us rise early to enjoy the luscious balmy air 
of the morning. We then have worship ; but amidst all the 
beauty and loveliness with which we are surrounded there is 
still a feeling of want in the soul in viewing one's poor com- 
panions, and hearing their bitter impure words jarring on 
the ear in the perfection of the scenes of nature ; and a longing 
that both their hearts and ours might be brought into har- 
mony with the Great Father of Spirits. I pointed out, in 
the simplest words I could employ, the remedy which God 
had presented to us in the inexpressibly precious gift of His 



PREFATORY LETTER. xxi 

Qwn Son, on whom the Lord 'laid the iniquity of us all.' 
The great difficulty in dealing with this people is to make the 
subject plain. The minds of the auditors cannot be under- 
stood by one who has not mingled much with them. They 
readily pray for the forgiveness of sins, and then sin again ; 
confess the evil of it, and there the matter ends." 

Does not this extract prove, that the poor African is of 
a moral nature in the exact similitude of our own — that he is 
of our very kith and kin — that he is indeed our humble 
Brother ? If so, our duty towards him is plain on the general 
score of humanity; and the commands of God are plain and 
positive. This at least we may say — with a full assurance of 
God's truth — that we commit a deadly sin against a benevo- 
lent Creator if we try to enslave and shut out, from the bless- 
ings of His truth, any portion of the human family: that 
we mock His attributes and scorn His redeeming mercies 
while we treat his humbler children as if they were only 
born to be beasts of burden to the proud civilized idolaters of 
Mammon. In the next paragraph — still writing of the Na- 
tives — he adds, " I shall not often advert to their depravity. 
My practice has always been to apply the remedy with all 
possible earnestness, but never allow my own mind to dwell 
on the dark shades of men's character. I have never been 
able to draw pictures of guilt, as if that could awaken Chris- 
tian sympathy." 

After tracking their way several weeks through swamps, 
and forests, and rank grasses which often reached two or three 
feet above the heads of those who were riding on the oxen ; 
and after crossing many clear streams which ooze out of the 
higher plains, and by their union form the last ramifications 
of the Kasye (a supposed tributary of the Congo), they at 
length crossed the Mosamba ridge. Soon afterwards they 
found the western edge of the great table-land, and had their 
hearts refreshed by the sight of a noble valley, the lateral 
streams of which unite and form the river Quango. This 



xxii PREFATORY LETTER. 

great river has a northern course through several degrees of 
latitude, and is then supposed to turn to the west, and at 
length to merge itself in the waters of the Congo. 

The views, from the edge of the highlands, were glorious. 
" Emerging," writes the Author, " from the forests of Londa, 
this magnificent prospect made us feel as if a weight had been 
lifted from our eyelids." And well might their hearts rejoice; 
for on the other side of the great broad valley (or system of 
valleys) there rose a western chain of mountains in a country 
under the government of Portugal. As he descended from 
the table-land, he was so weak, from many previous attacks 
of fever, that he had to be supported by his attendants. " It 
was annoying (he remarks with characteristic simplicity) to 
find myself so helpless; for I never liked to see a man, either 
sick or well, giving in effeminately." In the valley they 
were compelled, from want of food, to slaughter one of their 
few remaining oxen; for they were in a land of inhospitable 
Savages — men trained in treachery and blood by the teaching 
of the slave-dealer — who had food in plenty, but would give 
none of it to the weary strangers except in exchange for men 
(to be sold as slaves), or fire-arms, or oxen. On the third of 
April, 1854, they reached the left bank of the Quango. Dr 
Livingstone was then without any change of clothes, and with- 
out a tent to cover him in the night. His little tent had 
been for some time in tatters, and he was fain to cower 
under his remaining blanket — " thankful to God for His good- 
ness, for having so far brought them in safety without loss or 
bloodshed." 

The next day they crossed the river, after a malicious, but 
harmless, discharge of fire-arms had been opened on them by 
the Savages they were leaving behind. They were soon con- 
ducted to the hospitable house of Cypriano, a half-caste Por- 
tuguese sergeant; and their dangers were at an end; for they 
were now in a country ruled over by the old and tried friends 
of England. " We could breathe freely," says the Author; 



PREFATORY LETTER. xxiii 

"and my men remarked, in thankfulness, 'We are the children 
of Jesus.' " Whether they fully understood these words may 
well admit of doubt. They had heard their Master use these 
words, and he had done his best to make his hearers compre- 
hend their meaning. Whatever may have been the speculative 
faith of these humble Africans, we may say of them with 
truth, that a more true-hearted and gallant crew has seldom 
followed a Christian leader through toil and danger. 

In this long journey from the lake Dilolo to the west- 
ern bank of the Quango, they had to pass the country of 
the Chiboques ; men thoroughly brutalized by their inter- 
course with the Mambari slave-dealers. They no longer 
met with truth and kindness and friendly help ; but with 
falsehood, treachery, shameless extortion, and murderous 
intent. When Livingstone asked for food, though of the 
simplest kind and which they had in abundance, he was 
told to pay the price in a slave, a gun, a tusk, or in one 
of his oxen. Whatever were his straits, he was not the 
man to sell one of his loyal companions; nor did he commit 
the suicidal folly of parting with a gun to those who were 
ready to murder him and make a slave-gang of his fol- 
lowers; and the tusks were not his own. Through hard 
necessity, some time before he crossed the Quango, all his 
oxen were killed excepting four; these he saved from fur- 
ther importunity by lopping off a portion of their tails; 
for the fierce savages were cowed at the sight of a stump- 
tailed bullock ; thinking it must have some charmed drug 
within it that might work them mischief. 

Though worn down by hard labour, bad food, and 
many obstinate attacks of fever "which reduced him almost 
to a skeleton," hope never left him ; and he trusted that 
God would give them a deliverance from danger. It was 
this sentiment that kept up the courage of a brave heart, 
and made him calm and prudent in the hour of utmost 
peril. At one halting-place some of the Chiboque remarked, 



xxiv PREFATORY LETTER. 

"they have only five guns;" and soon afterwards their 
Chief collected all his people, "well armed with spears, 
swords, arrows, and guns;" and with fierce shouts they 
surrounded the little encampment of Livingstone. He 
calmly faced the danger, though his personal risk was im- 
minent ; for he knew well that if a fight began " the Chi- 
boque would aim at the white man first." He came in 
front, sat down upon his camp-stool, with a double-barrelled 
gun across his knees and a double-barrelled pistol at his 
side, and invited them to a parley. The chief and his 
leading men accepted the invitation, and sat down in front 
of their own party. By this act "they had placed them- 
selves in a trap, for the little band of Makololo behaved with 
admirable coolness, very quietly surrounded them, and made 
them feel that there was no chance of escaping their spears." 
The danger was however great. For the crowd was 
furious; brandishing their weapons, and pointing their 
guns at Livingstone, while he sat calmly on his camp-stool. 
"I was careful," he says, "not to appear flurried; and, 
having four barrels ready for instant action, looked quietly 
on the savage scene around." The courage of the white 
man at length prevailed; and after giving an ox as the 
price of peace, the crowd separated, and he was permitted 
to go on his way. "I felt assured," he tells us, "of being 
enabled, with the Makololo, who had been drilled by Sebi- 
tuane, to beat off our assailants. I was truly thankful, 
nevertheless, that — though resolved to die rather than de- 
liver up one of our number to be a slave — we had so far 
gained our point as to be allowed to pass on without having 
shed human blood." 

The country they had then to pass through had its 
tracks well trodden, and was not wanting in food. But 
the guides were treacherous and the natives inhospitable. 
He was ever the first when danger was in front. He was 
the last to cross the rivers ; and it was his task, in case of 



PREFATORY LETTER. xxv 

need, to compel a treacherous ferryman to complete his 
bargain. Many times he could have forced a supply of 
food for his party, and cut his way through those who 
opposed him ; but he had come on an honest mission of 
peace, and not on one of violence and blood. Hence, 
before he crossed the Quango, he was compelled to part 
with his last change of linen, and every scrap of property 
that he had a right to exchange for food ; and his black 
friends were in like poverty, being stripped of the most 
prized decorations of their persons. 

He knew how to maintain a good discipline, necessary 
to his own life as well as theirs : and on one occasion when 
there was a mutinous brawl among his men, while they 
were feasting on an ox he had slaughtered for a Sunday 
feast, he came from his tent, where he had been resting in 
a state of febrile stupor, with a double-barrelled pistol in 
his hand, and told them, " That he would maintain disci- 
pline, though at the expense of some of their limbs ; that 
so long as they travelled together they must remember that 
he was Master." "There being but little room to doubt 
his determination, they immediately became very obedient, 
and never afterwards gave him any trouble." 

When further on their way, they all became disheart- 
ened ; and some of the Makololo proposed that they should 
return home. But how were they to return home through 
the hostile country of the Chiboque ? Their property was 
gone. Sekeletu's tusks were still with them. That pro- 
perty had been held sacred till this day, when through 
dire necessity they were compelled to part with a single 
tusk. " The prospect of turning back when just on the 
threshold of the Portuguese settlement" was too painful to 
be endured. He used his best powers of persuasion, and 
then declared to them that if they returned he would go 
alone ; and he then went into his little tent to pray to God 
for help. His true-hearted band soon followed, and with 



xxvi PREFATORY LETTER. 

artless simplicity tried to comfort him in such words as 
these : " We will never leave you — Do not be disheart- 
ened — Wherever you lead we will follow — We are all your 
children — We will die for you — We have not fought be- 
cause you did not wish it; but if these enemies begin, you 
will see what we can do." 

Contrary to my express intention when I began this 
letter, I have been led to touch on details which shew the 
heroic side of Livingstone's noble character. He may not 
be a man of high birth, as height is counted in the heraldic 
symbols of honour ; but his patent of nobility was regis- 
tered in heaven, and the stamp of true greatness was fixed 
on his brow by the hand of the King of kings. He stood 
before us in our Senate-House, as a Christian hero; and as 
such we gave him the warmest welcome of our hearts. 

Leaving this digression, I will rejoin the little band of 
tattered travellers while among their kind friends at the house 
of Cypriano. After enjoying at his hospitable house some 
very welcome days of rest and refreshment, they moved on 
to Cassange, the frontier Portuguese station, and there sold 
their merchandise of tusks at a good price. They then 
crossed the Tala Mungongo mountains, which form a part 
of the most western skirt of the great table-land they had 
left behind, and descended into the valley of the Quize, in 
the higher lands of which, their eyes were greeted with the 
sight of wheat-fields, first introduced, it is said, by the 
Jesuit missionaries. In the country through which they 
continued to descend, first among the tributaries of the 
river Coanza and afterwards down the valley of the Bengo, 
they met everywhere with ample courtesy and kindness. 
Wide tracts of country, with a soil of almost unbounded 
fertility, were however left wild and uncultivated. As they 
journeyed onwards, orchards of fruit-trees, pine-apples and 
cotton-fields met their eyes. But they were sickly and 
out of spirits — partly from daily fatigue, and partly from 



PREFATORY LETTER. xxvii 

the effects of climate and the rank luxuriance of vegetable 
life. All the cultivation they saw was the result of slave- 
labour : and the slaves told the Makololo, in passing, that 
they were going to Loanda to be sold by Dr Livingstone ; 
for no white man had ever led black men from the interior 
country to the coast without selling them. Still the Mako- 
lolo followed their master with a loyal obedience., spite of 
some natural misgivings as to their own fate. 

On the 31st of May, 1854, when they crossed the plains 
above Loanda and first came in sight of the sea, they looked 
with awe upon the boundless waters. " We marched along 
with our Father (they said) believing—what the Ancients 
had always told us — that the world has no end ; but all at 
once the world says to us — I am finished — there is no more 
of me !" They then descended the declivity above the city of 
Loanda, while their leader was sick from chronic dysentery, 
exhausted by long fatigue, and under a great depression of 
spirits : for he felt doubtful about his reception in a city of 
12,000 souls, among whom there was but one English gen- 
tleman. Mr Gabriel, the Commissioner for the suppression 
of the slave-trade, was, however (he tells us), " a real 
whole-hearted Englishman. Seeing me so ill he benevo- 
lently offered me his bed : and never shall I forget the 
luxuriant pleasure I enjoyed in feeling myself again on a 
good English couch, after six months sleeping on the 
ground." 

The arrival from central Africa of twenty-seven free 
men, headed by a native of North Britain, was a joyful 
event, unexampled in the history of the province of An- 
gola; and the whole party received most substantial proofs 
of good-will, not only from Mr Gabriel, but also from 
the Bishop (then acting Governor of the Province), and 
from the Portuguese gentlemen resident at Loanda. Dr 
Livingstone's illness was of a nature that did not admit of 
a speedy cure ; and while he remained at the house of his 



xxviii PREFATORY LETTER. 

kind friend, some British ships of war came to anchor at 
the port; and several officers, as a matter of course, soon 
found their way to his sick chamber. When they saw his 
emaciated condition, they offered to convey him to St Helena, 
or to give him a passage home. But the spirit of hope had 
not left him. He was bound in conscience to carry back 
the fruit of their labour to Sekeletu, and he was bound in 
honour not to desert his loyal crew. So he refused the 
tempting offer, spite of all the dangers and toils to be en- 
countered on their return to Linyanti. And well it was 
for him and for us, that his trust in Providence did not fail, 
and that his heart remained firm to its purpose; for the 
vessel in which he might have sought a safeguard from 
sickness and danger, was lost in its way back to England. 
Gladly, however, he accepted the medical help offered by 
Captain Phillips of the Polyphemus; and (he tells us) 
''that Mr Cockin's treatment, aided by the exhilarating 
presence of the warm-hearted naval officers, and Mr Ga- 
briel's unwearied hospitality and care, soon brought him 
round again." 

The Makololo were presented by Mr Gabriel with red 
caps and striped cotton dresses; and thus arrayed they were 
led by Dr Livingstone on a state visit to the Bishop (the 
provisional Governor), who received them with all courtesy 
in the hall of his palace, and gave them the right of a free 
passage to Loanda, whenever they might wish to revisit it. 
They were afterwards invited, by Captain Skene and Com- 
mander Bedingfield, to visit the Philomel and the Pluto. 
Nearly the whole party of the Makololo went on board; 
but not without some natural misgivings; for they had 
been told, again and again, by their own countrymen, that 
their leader would in the end sell them to the " men of the 
sea." When on deck Dr Livingstone pointed to the sailors 
and said, " these are my countrymen sent by our Queen to 
put down the trade of those who buy and sell black men." 



PREFATORY LETTER. xxix 

Truly they are just like you, was the reply. All their fear 
at once vanished. They went forward among the jolly 
crew and partook of their dinner. They were allowed to 
fire off a cannon, and were delighted to see the powerful 
weapons with which the English put down the slave-trade. 
The size of the brig-of-war amazed them. "It is not a 
canoe, it is a town," was their remark; "and what sort of 
a town is this which you must climb up into with a rope? " 
All the way from Linyanti, the Makololo had been kind 
and loyal to their leader; but this visit to the ships of war 
made him stand higher still in their estimate of his authority. 
He had to the last been faithful to them ; he was honoured 
by his own countrymen; all their misgivings were now 
gone ; and from that day they looked up to him with un- 
flinching deference and fidelity. Indeed from their first 
arrival at Loanda every one remarked the respectful gravity 
of their deportment. They were struck with awe at the 
sight of the large stone-bouses, the churches, and the sea. 
A house of two stories was a thing for which they had no 
name in their own tongue. The only houses they had 
known were huts made out of poles stuck in the ground. 
Describing the houses at Loanda, u these are not huts, they 
said, but mountains, with several caves in them." But this 
feeling of awe and wonder did not, as one might have sup- 
posed, make them torpid and indifferent to their own place 
and duties. Quite the contrary. For Dr Livingstone had 
a severe relapse in the early part of the month of August, 
1854, which again confined him to his room; and on his 
recovery he found that the Makololo, without any hints 
from himself, had set up a brisk trade in fire- wood. Day 
by day they had sallied out at cock-crowing, and by morning 
light had reached the thickets and there collected bundles 
of fire-wood, which they brought back to the city. The 
bundles were then made into fagots, for which they had 
found a ready market. They were also employed, each at 



xxx PREFATORY LETTER. 

sixpence a-day, in unloading a coal-vessel that had come 
from England; and proved themselves good free-labourers, 
sticking steadily to their work for more than a month. In 
their own words — they had laboured every day, from sun- 
rise to sun-set, for a moon and a half; unloading, as quickly 
as they could, " stones that burn," till they were tired out. 

With the money thus gained, they purchased clothing 
and ornaments to take back with them on their journey 
home : and our author has thought it deserving of remark, 
that when taken to a shop where they saw many specimens 
of calico — some of which were flimsy, but of gaudy colours ; 
and when told to choose what they most valued, they all 
selected the strongest and best specimens of English calico, 
without any reference whatever to colour. Facts such as 
I have stated prove that the poor African is our brother — 
not to be trampled on, but to be won with kindness — to be 
taught gradually the arts of life, and he is willing to be 
taught — to be instructed in the pure lessons and hopes of 
the Gospel — and so be raised to the level of a true Christian 
brother, who may at length learn how to walk in the ways 
of pleasantness and the paths of peace. But, these lessons, 
alas ! he has seldom been taught, during the past three 
hundred years, by the men of Europe who have gone to the 
outskirts of his country. 

The objects our author had in view were so well ap- 
proved of by the authorities of Loanda that they voted a 
colonel's uniform and a horse for Sekeletu, and suits of 
clothing for all the men who had come on the expedition 
The merchants, by public subscription, gave them specimens 
of all the best articles of trade; and two donkeys were 
added, in the hope of introducing that beast of burden among 
the Makololo — on many accounts valuable, and most of all 
because it is insensible to the poison of the Tsetse. Dr Living- 
stone procured also a good stock of cotton-cloth, ammunition 
and beads, and gave each of his followers a musket ; and he 



PREFATORY LETTER. xxxi 

was himself also supplied " with a good new tent, made by 
his friends on board the Philomel." 

Their baggage was indeed heavy when they left their 
kind friends at Loanda on the 20th of September, 1854, 
after a halt of nearly four months : but the Bishop had 
furnished them with twenty carriers, and ordered the 
Commandants of the districts they had to pass through 
to give them all needful help. Their way was slow, but 
the country was beautiful and rich almost beyond imagina- 
tion, and the inhabitants were courteous and friendly. 
The Makololo were pained by the dryness of the soil, to 
which their feet were unaccustomed, but their spirits bore 
them up ; and while on their way they were composing 
songs to be sung when they should reach Liny an ti. Like 
other poets they were somewhat vain-glorious. " It is well, 
they said, that you came with the Makololo, for no tribe 
could have done what we have accomplished in coming to 
the white man's country: we are the true Ancients that can 
tell wonderful things." 

At Golungo Alto several of the Makololo suffered from 
malaria, and one of them had an attack of mania. He 
started up one day saying to his companions — '/ remain well, 
I am called away to the gods!" and off he ran at full speed. 
He was caught, after a long race, and brought back; and 
through gentle treatment he in a few days recovered. 
Livingstone also suffered by fever, while halting in the 
same neighbourhood at the hospitable house of Mr Canto. 

On the 14th of December the whole party were suf- 
ficiently recovered to resume their journey; and after 
crossing the Lucalla (one of the feeders of the river Coanza) 
they turned southwards to see the famous rocks of Pungo 
Andongo, and to visit the domains of Colonel Pires — one 
of the richest, wisest, and most patriotic men of the whole 
Province. On his estate cattle are found in thousands: 
his dairies produce excellent cheese and butter: his wheat- 



xxxii PREFATORY LETTER. 

crops are luxuriant: grapes, figs and peaches are the fruits 
of his cultivation: nature all round him is prolific, food is 
abundant, and the labourers are cheerful and well-fed. 
Were there a few more men scattered through Angola like 
this "merchant prince," it would soon become a bright 
jewel in the Crown of Portugal — of far higher price than it 
ever was, even in those days when the export trade in slaves 
was not restrained but encouraged by the great Christian 
states of Europe. 

Here Dr Livingstone learnt, to his sorrow, that his 
despatches, maps and journal had gone to the bottom of 
the sea, in the mail -packet that was to convey them from 
Loanda to England. He rejoiced, however, to find that 
his friend Lieutenant Bedingfield (to whom they had been 
entrusted) had escaped with life in the hour of peril: and 
with characteristic energy, he immediately set to work to 
re-write his journal; and as far as possible to replace his 
loss. He remained, therefore, to the end of the year with 
Colonel Pires; and nowhere in Angola could he have found 
a better resting-place. 

On the 1st of January, 1855, having re-produced some 
of his lost papers, he resumed his journey. They halted at 
a dairy-establishment of Colonel Pires ; and then through 
rich green pastures they went on to Malange, where they 
struck upon the track by which, in the previous year, they 
had entered the province of Angola. While continuing their 
way, they met a half-caste slave-dealer bringing his gang of 
sixty slaves and many elephants' tusks from the interior. 
They also met several carriers bearing ivory and large cakes 
of bees' wax for the markets of Loanda. On the 15th of 
January they again crossed the heights of Tala Mungongo; 
and after approximating to the elevation of these mountains 
by experiments on the temperature of boiling water, our 
author and his followers descended once more among the 
tributaries of the Quango. With untiring labour he con- 



PREFATORY LETTER. xxxiii 

tinued to explore the features of the country and to examine 
its resources; and on the 20th of February they left the 
frontier- station of Cassange behind them. But before they 
arrived at the left bank of the Quango, they were again 
brought to a halt by a fever which attacked two of the 
Makololo; and they did not reach the house of their friend 
Cypriano till the end of February. The next day, by a 
payment of calico (the money of the country), they were 
ferried across the Quango, and were once more among 
hostile Chiboque, and beyond the protection of the authori- 
ties of Angola: but they were well armed against attack, and 
had brought ample means with them for purchasing their 
needful food. 

The country, on the east side of the Mungongo range, 
which they had now traversed, was of a fertility and 
beauty that called forth Dr Livingstone's frequent expres- 
sions of admiration and delight. Even the Makololo were 
loud in their words of praise at the sight of the fine garden- 
grounds through which they were journeying; and they set 
down the inhabitants as an inferior race of white men, 
because they knew not the use of milk, and were seen to 
kill their heifer-calves, and cows. When told that flour, 
and some other articles of daily use among the Portuguese, 
were brought from a far country, they exclaimed — " they 
are ignorant of living, they know nothing but buying and 
selling, they are not men." I hope, adds Dr Livingstone, 
that this may reach the ears of my Angola friends, and stir 
them up to develope the resources of their fine country. 
While he remained in the Province he lost no opportunity 
of learning its resources. Its natural riches are almost in- 
credible; but have so far been turned to small profit. The 
palm-tree which produces the oil of commerce rises there to 
perfection. The tobacco-plant grows in great luxuriance ; 
and rich grounds with orange-trees and bananas, maize and 
manioc, are found in the lower valleys and plains. The 



xxxiv PREFATORY LETTER. 

coffee-tree grows rapidly on the outskirts, and within the 
partial shade, of the forests. In many parts of the country, 
especially on the banks of the Coanza, there are vast tracts 
of land admirably fitted for the cultivation of sugar, rice 
and cotton. Good iron mines are found and partially 
worked in the same districts. That the uplands of the 
Province are admirably fitted for pasture and for agriculture 
is most certain. But the country is without carriage-roads; 
and it is in vain to look for a great production of food 
where there are no roads for its conveyance to a distant 
market. 

The whole economy of the Province was vitiated by 
the long continuance of the foreign slave-trade. The great 
proprietors came to Angola to gain wealth, and then to 
return to Europe. They found the export of slaves a ready 
source of profit; and they little thought of durable improve- 
ments of the soil, which, however promising in regard to 
future good, could produce little gain before they left the 
country. The one great source of wealth has now been cut 
off; and the country is, as our Author tells us, in a state of 
"transition from unlawful to lawful trade." But bodies 
of men cannot at once change their habits and opinions ; 
and the Angolese have undergone a season of inevitable 
depression, and are again rising, it is hoped, in industry 
and wealth. To secure this end they are above all things 
called on to do what they ought to have done long since — to 
make carriage-roads through the rich parts of the Pro- 
vince ; and to complete those canals which will connect the 
Coanza with the port of Loanda — thereby giving good water- 
carriage to some of the most productive districts of the 
country. There can be no lack of labourers in Angola ; 
and it would be wise were the authorities to allow some 
bodies of their slaves to purchase their freedom by the con- 
struction of public works. No matter how constructed, 
the moment there are good roads, and good water-carriage, 






PREFATORY LETTER. xxxv 

agriculture and productive industry will improve rapidly; 
and Angola will throw out crops a hundred-fold the value 
of what it now produces. 

There is an enormous disproportion between the num- 
bers of the coloured and white men of Angola. Dr Living- 
stone mentions one district in which out of nearly 14,000 
there are only ten white men. What is the proportion of 
free half-castes is not stated. In other parts of the province 
the relative numbers are, of course, very widely different. 
The state of morals under such a condition of society must 
inevitably be low. But let no Englishman too proudly 
blame the rulers of Loanda for their slave-gangs, or for 
their having sometimes, perhaps, shut their eyes to a smug- 
gling export of negroes from their coast. I am old enough 
to remember the dreary time when the brave indignant 
oratory of Fox, the majestic eloquence of Pitt, and the 
silver voice of Wilberforce (speaking like an angel in the 
cause of mercy and truth and national honour), were heard 
in vain in St Stephen's Chapel ; when, year after year, the 
representatives of free England sanctioned and commended 
a vile unchristian trade in the flesh and blood of the men 
of Africa. Vain were the pleadings of Christian love and 
national honour, when the children of mammon were allowed 
to hold the balance while the debate was going on. Yet our 
temptation to wrong was not comparable to that of the 
governors of Loanda. They inherited a bad polity, which 
put them in moral fetters; from which they had not then, 
nor have they now, the power of gaining an instant free- 
dom. But they have the power to mitigate the horrors of 
the imported slave-gangs, and perhaps to put them down : 
and now that there is an opening, we may hope that they 
will effectually encourage a humane, free commerce with 
central Africa. 

They brought with them to Loanda the sentiments of 
honour and humanity they had been taught in Christian 

5—2 



xxxvi PREFATORY LETTER. 

Europe, and to which every man, whatever may be his pri- 
vate life, professes an allegiance. But when they find them- 
selves in a new position and entangled in a policy which their 
hearts cannot approve of, they may soon learn to lull their 
conscience into a belief that the African is in a better con- 
dition with them than he would be were he left to the free- 
dom of his own country. Were this true it would be but a 
worthless atom in helping us to decide upon a great moral 
question that still agitates a part of the Christian world. 

Unrestrained power is a corrupter of the human heart ; 
and the principles of the Gospel (as is proved by the social 
history of all the older portions of Christendom) are at war 
with an institution that makes one part of the human family 
the bond-slaves of the other. The Son of God, who came 
down to save us, tells us in as plain words as were ever 
put on record — that the humblest man living is our 
brother — that if he be ignorant we are bound to teach him 
— if fierce and sinful, to soften his heart, to lead him to 
better knowledge and better hopes — and thus to raise him, 
through Divine help, to his true resting-place as a member 
of the great human family. To act in direct antagonism to 
these pure elements of Christian truth is to make a profane, 
hypocritical mockery of our religion — to shew ourselves 
the tyrants over those who have God's title to our good- 
will and love — to prove ourselves the bond-slaves of the 
minister of evil. 

The true Christian policy of Angola is steadily and 
honestly to mitigate a great existing evil — to stop the slave- 
gangs from coming down among them from the forests of 
Africa, like the blast of a moral pestilence — with all pru- 
dence and humanity to change slavery into serfdom, and 
serfdom, at length, into civil freedom. Taking the lowest 
ground, and keeping the moral question in abeyance, the 
State would not lose but gain by such a gradual change; 
while the African is encouraged to win his freedom by 



PREFATORY LETTER. xxxvii 

labouring at the construction of public works, which are 
most needful to the wealth and prosperity of the country. 
This at least we may affirm, that no state in Christendom, 
whatever be its extent, and be it weak or strong, can ever 
be truly great and glorious while it willingly retains and 
upholds domestic slavery as an element of its polity. Its 
profession of religion would, in such a case, be nothing 
better than a national hypocrisy; and it would but mock 
us if it dared to boast of its social freedom. The advocates 
of good and evil — of Christian freedom and social slavery 
— cannot be so blended in the institutions of any nation 
under heaven, as to work well together (like the antagonist 
muscles of the human body) in maintaining its uprightness 
and strength. Either the evil will overcome the good, or 
the good will reform the evil. But the victory, on which 
ever side it lean, may not be won without a long con- 
flict: and while the champion of slavery is able to hold up 
his head, what can we expect from him but fierce manners 
in the place of Christian gentleness? The man who has 
so hoodwinked his conscience as to be without any moral 
sympathy with the purest elements of Christian truth and 
love, will be ready to poison the fountains of legislation, 
and to laugh to scorn those laws of nations which have long 
supported the weak against the strong — which have mitigated 
the horrors of war, and have helped to keep in remembrance 
not the form only but the very substance of truth and 
justice even among the bitterest trials of humanity. 

The power of Christian truth cannot be felt by the man 
who denies the Divine authority of its author. There are 
men, who deny the being of a God, and in His place pre- 
tend to set up man as the creature of their idolatry. And 
they do this while they are robbing him of hopes that are 
the solace of his life, and debasing his understanding by 
taking from it all true nobility and trying to cheat it of those 
in-born powers by which it rises to the apprehension of the 



xxxviii PREFATORY LETTER. 

highest truth. Nor do they stop here. They tell him that 
he is of a beastly origin, and only the king of brutes. Like 
brutes he is to live and die — a mere machine, ruled by a 
stern physical necessity, and therefore without moral blame 
even in his most atrocious violations of human law. What 
is this but to snap asunder the sacred bonds by which 
men have been held together in social union? To such men 
I have nothing to say. My remarks apply to those men 
only who call themselves Christian freemen, and ought 
therefore to be bound by the sacred principles which be- 
long to that high name. 

The great sin of the slave-trade was not in the horrors 
of the middle passage, or in the evil and degradation en- 
dured by the poor African in the Colonies on the western 
side of the Atlantic. Its greatest mischief was in its origin. 
It set man against man, and tribe against tribe; and has 
for centuries been the great barrier against all progress of 
civilization, and all diffusion of Christian light through wide 
portions of a great Continent : while by a hideous moral 
transformation, it made some of the strongest nations of 
Christian Europe the tempters, the apologists, the cowardly 
accessories of a set of lawless savages and brutal murderers. 

If a man, who knew nothing of the miserable history 
of Africa, were told of a map which represented the moral 
condition of its inhabitants by shades of colour ; he would 
naturally look for the brightest colours on the coast-line, 
where the negro must have learnt wisdom by his commerce 
with the civilized men of Europe. But alas, how different 
has been the teaching! Where the Christian has most 
trodden, his footsteps have been too often traced in colours 
of blood : and where he has planted Colonies on the coast of 
Africa, we do not see a zone of bright colours fringing the 
frontier lines ; but we do see, in their stead, great waves as 
black as ebony spreading themselves far inwards, till they 
are lost in the better tints of the central continent. Such 



PREFATORY LETTER. xxxix 

is the moral map ; and its stygian colours are a foul disgrace 
to civilized Christian Europe. 

Leaving this long digression let us rejoin our Author 
and his party on the east side of the Quango, and follow 
them across that broad dark wave which disfigures the 
moral tints of Africa. They proceeded nearly along their 
previous track till they had passed the Mosamba ridge; and 
they were accompanied by some half-caste traders, who car- 
ried <f aquardente" with them — a baneful article of commerce. 
The country was still unfriendly; but they were strong and 
well provided; and, being more quick of foot, they soon left 
their slave-dealing companions far behind, and struck to- 
wards the north-east — along a main slave-dealers' track 
that leads to Cabango, and thence to Matiamvo the capital 
of Londa. 

While making their way along this track, through 
dreary forests and dismal swampy plains, Dr Livingstone 
was smitten down by a dangerous fever, and for twenty- 
two days was unable to move forward. His companions 
during this delay contrived to embroil themselves with 
the head man of the village, and had to pay a gun and 
some cloth as a peace-offering. Encouraged by this suc- 
cessful extortion, the Natives, not long afterwards, attacked 
and fired upon them after they had proceeded on their 
journey, and our Author's courage was again put to trial. 
Forgetting his fever, he staggered quickly to the place of 
danger; and there "with a stern visage, ghastly from sick- 
ness," and with a six-barrelled revolver presented to the 
breast of the Chief, he soon brought about a revolution in 
the martial spirit of his opponents and was allowed to pass 
on. " The Macololo made the woods ring while telling how 
brilliant their conduct before the enemy would have been, 
had hostilities not been brought to a sudden close." Nor 
was this a mere noisy boast ; for they were a set of gallant 
fellows, and had been well- trained by Sebituane their for- 
mer leader. 



xl PREFATORY LETTER. 

While making slow way from his state of great exhaus- 
tion, he was glad for a short season, to rejoin the half-caste 
traders ; but he never lost a day in which he did not no- 
tice the manners of the Natives and the productions of 
the country. As they went northwards the landscape im- 
proved, the inhabitants were more numerous, and the food 
was of better quality. The continued use of manioc pro- 
duced a disease in the eyes ; but by mixing the oleaginous 
ground-nut with it they had a more hearty and wholesome 
food. Though the prevailing use of fire-arms had driven 
the larger game into the forest they saw tracks of the 
eland and the hippopotamus high up among the branches 
of the Casai. Their most northern point was Cabango — a 
large village composed of native huts, and a few miserable 
square houses belonging to the half-caste slave agents of 
the Portuguese traders of Cassange. The cruelty of these 
agents provoked the indignation of the whole party. 
"They have no hearts," exclaimed the Makololo, "and why 
do the slaves let them?" 

The spirit of enterprize never left Dr Livingstone so long 
as his strength lasted; and he at one time thought of fol- 
lowing the track to Matiamvo ; hoping from that capital to 
work his way to the Zambesi. But neither he nor his com- 
panions were well-acquainted with the Balonda dialect ; and 
the large stock of goods with which they had left Loanda was 
rapidly wasting away. They, therefore, turned from Ca- 
bango towards the south-east; and through gloomy forests, 
and open swampy plains, journeyed on towards the water- 
shed of Dilolo. While away from any slave-track they 
were received with kindness; and they met with one 
simple-hearted tribe who refused to eat beef when it was 
offered them; because "the cows," they said, "were human 
beings, and lived at home like men." 

It was the winter of the southern hemisphere, and 
there were great ranges of temperature between night and 
day among these swampy uplands. In the day the thermo- 



PREFATORY LETTER. xli 

meter would range from 80° to 96°, and sink in the night 
to 58° or 60°; and he mentions a case when it sank to 42°. 
Before they gained the water-shed, they were once more 
among the slave-dealers ; and at Kawawa they met with a 
treacherous Chief who called out his people to attack them. 
With his usual presence of mind, and by a new exposure 
of his person at the point of danger, Dr Livingstone held 
the savages at bay; and not without difficulty prevented 
his own men from opening fire upon them. 

After crossing the Casai they again entered the great plain 
(about 4000 feet above the level of the sea) which is the 
water-shed between the Congo and the Zambesi. They no 
longer had any fear of interruption from the slave-dealer: 
but two days afterwards (June 5th) their leader was struck 
down (though but for one day) by his twenty- seventh 
attack of fever. Next day they moved forward, and on the 
8th of June regained their old track near the Lake Dilolo. 
They had still a long and weary way to travel ; but they 
were among friends, and wholesome animal food soon 
became abundant. Once more they met with a hearty wel- 
come from Katema and Shinte, and were this time able to 
gratify those Chiefs with ample presents. 

I need not dwell upon their journey down the Leeba, and 
down the Barotse valley. As their return was little ex- 
pected, their canoes had been removed; but they easily 
had them replaced. One of the party afterwards deserted 
them to join his father; but this was done when all 
danger was over. Down the Barotse valley their progress 
was a continued ovation ; yet they had little now to offer 
in return for most ample kindness. " The many delays," 
says Dr Livingstone, "caused by sickness, made me ex- 
pend all my stock, and all the goods my men procured 
by their own labour at Loanda; and we returned to the 
Makololo as poor as when we set out." " I felt, he adds, 
and still feel most deeply grateful, and tried to benefit 



xlii PREFATORY LETTER. 

them in the only way I could, by imparting the know- 
ledge of that Saviour who can comfort and supply them 
in the time of need; and my prayer is that He may send 
His good Spirit to instruct them and lead them into His 
kingdom. Even now, I earnestly long to return, and make 
some recompense to them for their kindness." 

He again dwells with delight on the riches of animated 
nature. The ibis was seen in large flocks. The pelicans 
whitened the banks, and might be counted by hundreds. 
In other places, the banks were so covered by brown- 
backed ducks {Anas histrionica) that he brought down 
fourteen at a single shot. Among other incidents, his ca- 
noe was one day attacked and upset by a hippopotamus 
which had lost its young. Finally, after a halt at Sesheke, 
he arrived at Linyanti in September, bringing with him 
the presents sent for Sekeletu by the authorities of Lo- 
anda. His waggon and its contents (things of great 
value in the eyes of the poor Makololo) were standing, 
where he had left them twenty-two months before, in as 
perfect safety as if they had been locked up in the magazine 
of an arsenal. 

Dr Livingstone never for a moment thought of procuring 
oxen and harnessing them to his waggon for a return to the 
Cape; which he might have done without any obvious 
difficulty. He had effected his first purpose, and opened 
a way for a lawful commerce with Angola. But the way 
was long and quite unfit for the ox- waggon; and many 
parts of the country were unhealthy. To find if possible 
an easier and a better road, by descending along the 
line of the Zambesi to the eastern coast of Africa, was 
now his object: and Sekeletu readily listened to the plan, 
and began to organize a party for the enterprise. The 
Makololo were fired with a spirit of adventure. The great 
Chief ordered tusks to be collected from all the country 
round about, that they might be conveyed by Dr Living- 



PREFATORY LETTER. xliii 

stone to the coast, and exchanged for the precious goods 
of England ; and before long he brought together a brave 
band of volunteers, who were anxious for a start down the 
great river. In this band were some men of experience and 
authority; and among them was Sekwebu a Chief of much 
native prudence and discretion, long tried in danger, and 
skilled from early life in the dialects spoken above the Delta 
of the Zambesi. 

Sekeletu was proud of his colonel's uniform and of 
the rich presents he had received from Loanda; and he 
was delighted with the two donkeys which promised him a 
new breed for domestic use, and might now and then regale 
his ears with their sonorous music. The Makololo had 
indeed returned with Dr Livingstone as poor as they went 
out; but "we have not gone in vain," they said, and even 
before they reached Liny an ti they had begun to collect 
tusks of the hippopotamus for a second journey to Angola. 
Such was the genuine spirit of the poor Africans. 

Meanwhile Dr Livingstone was in full professional employ- 
ment. He had to preach to the 7000 inhabitants of Linyanti, 
to cure their sickness, and to heal their wounds; for he 
was at once a missionary, a surgeon and a physician. He 
remarks that the temperature of the blood of the Natives 
was 98° ; while the thermometer with the bulb held in his 
own mouth rose to J 00°. But this seems only to prove 
that he was in a fever from overwork and the effects of 
a burning tropical sun; while his friends were in more 
natural health. He had, however, still harder work: he 
had to settle many nice and angry questions in debate. 
Several of the Makololo ladies had married again during 
the long absence of their husbands in the expedition to 
Loanda. They preferred a good husband in hand to one 
in the far western bush who never might come back to 
them. When a single wife was in dispute, he compelled 
the new husband to give her up to the man who had the 



xliv PREFATORY LETTER. 

first claim upon her love. The cases of polygamy were 
harder to determine; and some of the offending parties 
were out of reach and mocked the court. Some of the hus- 
bands who had lost their wives affected to be indifferent. 
" Wives are as plentiful as grass, said Mashauama, and I can 
get another ; she may go." He added, however, that if he 
caught the fellow he would slit his ears for him. One 
important case was referred to the judgment of Sekeletu. 
There were many suitors for the hand of a pretty black girl; 
and to prevent all further heart-burnings he compelled them 
to stand in a row; and then told her to pick out the one 
she liked best. With all gravity, and with great discretion, 
she selected the best-looking fellow that stood up before her. 
Sekeletu had himself been an offender, in a different 
way, during the absence of the western expedition. He 
had done a little work in the old and honourable trade of 
"cattle-lifting." Dr Livingstone privately and tenderly 
admonished him; and he confessed his fault with promises 
of amendment. The counsel given to our Author by old 
Motibe (the father-in-law of Sekeletu) deserves notice. 
" Reprove your child Sekeletu," he said, "for this maraud- 
ing. Scold him much, but don't let others hear you." 
Without any attempt at declamation, but as the calm result 
of long and intimate experience, Dr Livingstone concludes 
that the poor untaught Africans "are in conduct just such 
a strange mixture of good and evil as men are every where 
else, and that by a selection of instances it would not be 
difficult to make the people appear excessively good or un- 
commonly bad." Steady principle the poor African may 
want; and he may be liable to be borne away by savage 
gusts of bad passion till he has been better taught. But do 
not the facts before us — be they serious or comic — prove 
that he is indeed our humble brother? and that we do vile 
wrong, before God and man, when we drag him from his 
home, and make him a slave that he may minister to the 



PREFATORY LETTER. xlv 

refined appetites of Christian nations ; who profess, at least, 
to believe the lessons of a Saviour common to all the sons 
of men ? 

The expedition down the Zambesi had no other base to 
rest upon than the influence gained by Livingstone over 
the native Chiefs. He had not a scrap of property of his 
own: but he had brought with him a good name from the 
Bakwains : and well had he confirmed it while among the 
Makololo, by his truth, his purity of life, and his courage 
in the hour of danger. Had he been found wanting in 
any one of these qualities they would have despised him. 
Just before they started, Mamire (who had married Seke- 
letu's mother) came to bid them farewell. " You," said he 
to Dr Livingstone, " are now going among a people who 
cannot be trusted because we have used them badly; but 
you go with a different message from any they ever heard 
before, and Jesus will be with you and help you though 
among your enemies: and if He carries you safely, and 
brings Ma-Robert back again I shall say he has conferred 
a great favour upon me." When Dr Livingstone remarked 
that he had nothing of his own to give, Mamire's answer 
(translated literally) was as follows: "A man wishes to 
appear among his friends, after a long absence, with some- 
thing of his own to shew. The whole of the ivory in the 
country is yours; so you must take as much as you can, 
and Sekeletu will furnish men to carry it." 

The exploring party, composed of 114 men, — selected 
from several distinct tribes, and with Sekwebu as their in- 
terpreter among the tribes of the lower Zambesi — left Lin- 
yanti on the 3rd of November, 1855. They bore with them 
many tusks for sale at the end of the expedition ; hoes, 
beads, and other articles for exchange while on the way ; 
and they had twelve oxen, three for riding, and the rest 
for bearing their baggage. Everything they had was with 
confiding generosity supplied by Sekeletu ; and he himself. 



xlvi PREFATORY LETTER. 

with about two hundred of his followers, accompanied them 
as far as the falls of the Zambesi. 

The first part of their journey was through a low country, 
which is partially inundated by the tropical floods, and forms 
the north-eastern brim of the great central basin of South 
Africa: but before they reached Kalai the country was 
greatly changed. Beautiful hills and woodlands rise, on 
both sides of the river, to a considerable elevation ; and still 
higher hills stretch through the country further toward the 
east. How then does the Zambesi work its way through 
these hills to the Indian sea? This is an important question; 
for it is certain that the river once stood at a much higher 
level than its does now ; arid that it then helped to supply 
the waters of a great central lake. Of this fact we find 
ample proof in the work of Livingstone. 

About ten miles below Kalai, dark clouds (looking, at a 
distance, like the smoke of a burning jungle) are constantly 
seen to hang over the broad bed of the river. A thundering 
sound — loud enough sometimes to be heard beyond Kalai — 
had seemed to Sebituane to come out of the overhanging 
clouds. He had spoken of this fact in 1850, when he asked 
Livingstone if he had ever seen sounding smoke. Hence 
it was that the Chief called the place Mosyoatunya (smoke 
sounds there) — no bad name for one of the most wonderful 
spots on the face of the earth. Livingstone was not the man 
to be content with a mere name. He twice descended to the 
"sounding smoke" — in the second instance accompanied by 
Sekeletu. His descriptions of the scene are admirable; but 
too long to be extracted here. In a few words then : just 
where the "sounding smoke" begins to rise towards the 
sky, the great Zambesi — nearly a thousand yards wide and 
with rapid and pellucid waters — suddenly disappears. It 
is engulfed in a basaltic rock that forms the bed of the 
river, and descends at one plunge into a deep fissure, less 
than a hundred feet wide, which traverses the channel from 



PREFATORY LETTER. xlvii 

the right bank to the left. From the left bank the great 
fissure appears to continue its course through the eastern 
hills, for thirty or forty miles. What may be the phenomena 
below the Victoria Falls (such is the name given to them by 
their discoverer; for Sebituane had heard, but had not seen 
them) must at present remain a matter of conjecture. This, 
however, appears certain — that about thirty or forty miles 
below the falls, the great river emerges in a comparatively low 
country, and becomes navigable for canoes (with the possi- 
ble exception of one or two rapids) down to the head of the 
Delta; and thence down the many channels by which it makes 
its way to the sea. To examine this part of its course (if 
possible by help of a Steam Launch — the Ma-Robert — and 
may God prosper it and its good crew !) will be one of the 
many objects of the expedition which has now left England. 

The sudden plunge of the river into the yawning chasm, 
naturally produces the thundering sounds which are heard 
from afar. The foaming surface of the water — seen about 
a hundred feet below the top — has the whiteness of snow ; 
but the rocky bottom of the chasm, to allow the onward 
passage of such an enormous mass of waters, must be at a 
vast depth below. A conflict between the boiling waters and 
the walls of rock, through which they force their way, pro- 
duces great volumes of spray which rise high above the 
river, and are then condensed into clouds and drifted before 
the wind. But the spray is not uniformly diffused above 
the great fissure ; for in some places it is so much condensed 
as to put on the look of great jets or columns, among which 
the sun-beams play and produce glorious circles of pris- 
matic light. 

The eye of civilized man had never viewed this scene 
before it was beheld by Livingstone. Some of the Natives 
were struck with awe at the sight ; and three Batoka chiefs 
offered prayers and sacrifices to the Barimo, at three different 
spots ; while they listened to the roar of the waters, and 



xlviii PREFATORY LETTER. 

beheld the bright bows of colour in the rising spray. 
Nature herself seems to have rejoiced in her own work- 
manship ; for she has adorned it with the most gorgeous 
dress of tropical vegetation. The huge giant of the forest, 
the baobab — groups of palm-trees with their feathery leaves 
projected on the sky or on the rising vapour — the silvery 
mohonono, in form like the cedar of Lebanon — the dark 
motsouri, in form resembling the cypress, and dotted over 
with scarlet fruit — many other trees, like the great spread- 
ing oaks, elms, and chestnuts of England — each in its own 
w r ay, and all combined together, as if in nature's revelry, 
helped to decorate the banks of the Zambesi and the Falls 
of Victoria. 

Before leaving the subject, it deserves remark that the 
chasm which receives the Zambesi does not seem to have 
been much changed since its first formation ; and the rock, 
over which the water tumbles into the chasm, has not been 
worn down, more than two or three feet, by the attrition 
of the materials which have been drifted over it. 

On the 20th of November the generous Chief bad adieu 
to the party and returned with his attendants to Linyanti. 
Dr Livingstone and his 114 companions then left the Zam- 
besi, and struck northwards into the hilly country of the 
Batoka. Their whole journey to Tete — the nearest Por- 
tuguese town — may be divided into three periods: 1st, 
Their journey from Kalai till they again touched on the left 
bank of the Zambesi. 2ndly, Their course along the left 
bank, till they were enabled to cross the great river. 3rdly, 
Their journey from the right bank of the river, till they 
reached Tete, when their perils were over. The first period 
employed them about six weeks. 

In their way through the Batoka country they saw many 
rude proofs of the ferocity of the old inhabitants, who were 
in truth a set of brutal savages. Their subjection and par- 
tial extermination by Sebituane is considered by Livingstone, 



PREFATORY LETTER. xlix 

spite of its horrors, to have been a great gain to central 
Africa. The conquering Chief was a rough and classical 
reformer: for he called it peace when he had made the land 
a solitude. The country they passed along was delight- 
ful. They had not now (as in their western journey) to 
make their weary way through tall reeds reaching above 
their heads, and through swamps and tangled forests; but 
they trod on soft green pastures, decorated here and there 
by gorgeous tropical trees and partial woodlands; and con- 
stantly, as they crossed the higher elevations, they had 
panoramic views of great extent and admirable beauty. 
The whole region was broken into a succession of ridges — 
running north and south, or north-east and south-west — 
and, almost without being conscious of it, they gradually 
rose to the height of 5,000 feet above the level of the sea — 
among bosses of granite which pierced through the gneiss 
and mica-slate, and tilted up the beds at a high angle, so as to 
make them dip from the protruding rock. 

The temperature was high, for they were travelling 
under a tropical sun, and during the summer of the southern 
hemisphere : and in an unknown land — among wild beasts 
and savages — they could not make their way by night. But 
the air of the uplands was fresh and invigorating ; and they 
were all in high health and spirits, well fed, and without 
fever, headache, or sense of fatigue. In short, says Dr 
Livingstone, "the climate is as healthy as that most healthy 
of all healthy climates," which extends for several hundred 
miles on the eastern skirt of the great Kalahari desert. The 
country improved in beauty as they approached the Kafue — 
one of the larger tributaries of the Zambesi. After they had 
passed that river their labour increased. The climate be- 
came more oppressive; and they had to work their way 
through valleys and dense woods, sometimes following the 
tracks made by the wild beasts. Lastly, they became aware 
of their approach to the broad waters of the great river by 

6 



1 PREFATORY LETTER. 

flocks of water-fowl, which darkened the air ; and they at 
length reached its left bankat thebeginningof the year(1856). 

In the hills and fine uplands through which they had 
passed, the baobab lifted its huge limbs into the air, and 
they saw many other trees, with which they had become 
familiar in Loanda. Their senses were also greeted by 
beautiful fruit-trees, which gave them healthy and refresh- 
ing food. Many of these trees are probably of new species. 
Once for all (including some that were seen on the south 
bank of the Zambesi), I may mention the fruit-trees our Au- 
thor most frequently alludes to. The moskuka with its apples 
tasting like a pear, and " found in prodigious quantities as 
they went along." The maneko producing a curious fruit 
with a horny rind; the interior filled with glutinous juice 
and sweet like sugar. The masuka in some places covers the 
ground and yields a pleasant fruit, which gave them a con- 
stant supply of food: and the molondo, sl smaller allied spe- 
cies, had a delicious fruit. The mokorojiga, a forest-tree 
producing a dark plum, with purple juice, which is eagerly 
devoured by the elephants, and by the Natives who call it 
" pure fat." It is at once wholesome and delicious. The 
Author also found, on the north bank of the Zambesi, mango- 
trees and tamarinds in abundance. The fruit is collected for 
the Chiefs; but the trees are not propagated or cultivated. 
He saw also the motondo, resembling a tamarind. It is a 
useful timber-tree, and yields a good fruit as large as a 
walnut. He also mentions a species of gigantic fig-tree : 
but I must leave this subject — a glorious one for the bota- 
nists of the new expedition. 

The soil among the glades and lawns of the delicious 
uplands is spangled with flowers. Among them he describes 
the zebra-hoof — a flower as white as the snow-drop, which 
droops and dies day by day in the sun, and is renewed by a 
fresh crop of blossoms every morning. The ground seems 
quite alive with the stridulous piercing notes of crickets and 



PREFATORY LETTER. li 

grasshoppers. The air hums joyfully with the sound of 
insects on the wing, and among them the wailing note of the 
musquito is not heard. Nor are the birds less vocal. The 
cheerful chirp of the honey-guide was heard on all sides ; 
and during their long journey it was often followed by the 
Makololo (comprehending under this word all the Africans 
of the party), and seldom led them wrong. Every evening 
and morning the birds of the forest joined in full chorus, 
and some of them had fine loud notes. One of them, called 
by the Natives Mokma-reza ("the son-in-law of God"), 
cries pala, pala (or rain, rain), a note of good omen. The 
croaking of the crow is of bad omen; for "it is supposed 
(as our Author tells us) to seal up the windows of heaven." 

Again (when describing the country on the south bank 
of the Zambesi) he tells us that the birds are not generally 
wanting in the power of song: "the chorus or body of 
song is not much less in volume than it is in England; 
but it is not so harmonious, and it sounded as if the birds 
were singing in a foreign tongue." It is not that the 
African birds are wanting in song, "but that they have 
lacked poets to sing their praises ;" and there are, he adds, 
comparatively few with gaudy plumage, like the birds of 
Brazil. "The majority of them have a sober dress." 

But what most of all delighted his companions was the 
fertility of the soil, and the abundance of large game. 
Elephants, zebras, gnus, buffaloes and antelopes, swarmed 
among some of the glades which they passed through ; and 
droves of red pigs (the Potamochcerus) were seen near the 
mouth of the Kafue. The habits of the animals — the way 
in which the different herds went under the guidance of a 
prudent leader — the fierce charge of the buffalo, sometimes 
seen with its guardian birds (Textor erythrorhynchus) sitting on 
its withers, which like true sharp-sighted guardians are ready 
to sound the alarm, while the dull-sighted beast is feeding 
— the clumsy gestures and sports of the elephants; their di- 

6—2 



lii PREFATORY LETTER. 

minished size in these latitudes, and their enormous tusks — 
the spear-hunts of the Makololo, and their songs of triumph 
when a huge beast is down — all these things passed in 
review before Dr Livingstone. Again and again he wished 
for some photographic power to fix in true stature and pro- 
portion these aspects of a grand and untamed nature. At 
their resting-places, during night, they often heard the 
roaring of the lion: but they did not fear him; for he is a 
cowardly brute, and had plenty of timid animals to prey 
upon in the woodlands round about. Before turning to 
another subject, I may remark that the lordly giraife and the 
ostrich are wanting in the fauna north of the Zambesi, and 
have not so much as a name in the language of the people. 
The white rhinoceros has also disappeared from that region ; 
and the double-horned black species has become very rare. 
South of the Zambesi the black species is more common, 
and (like the buffalo) may be seen with its attendant guard- 
bird (Bnphaga Africana). Before they reached the Zambesi 
they saw a female elephant followed by three calves: and 
again (as in the Barotse valley) the female hippopotamus 
was seen swimming in the waters with her young crouch- 
ing between her ears, or resting on her withers, 

While describing the country as a tropical paradise, we 
must not forget the people. The Batoka are thinly scattered ; 
and the allied tribes, between them and the Kafue, are in a 
low grade of civilization. But the poor people are hospit- 
able in their own way, and did their best to help the tra- 
vellers. Their provisions are abundant; for the soil is 
most grateful, and the climate is such as to secure a good 
return for what is sown in it. The whole country abounds 
in monstrous ant-hills (like those seen the year before) — 
often fifty feet in diameter and now and then twenty feet 
high — which supply the best garden ground in the coun- 
try; and there the Natives plant their maize, pumpkins 
and tobacco. 






PREFATORY LETTER. liii 

There was, however, one single exception to the kind- 
ness of the Natives. At the river Dila (not quite half way 
between Kalai and the Kafue) they were among a tribe 
of men — not perfectly subdued by Sebituane — who probably 
suspected them to be enemies. There was the risk of a 
night-attack; and one frantic fellow (driven mad perhaps 
by smoking a kind of cannabis — a vile habit among the 
poor Africans) came and brandished his battle-axe before 
Livingstone; who with his usual courage and humanity, 
and well supported by Sekwebu, soon put the madman on 
one side, and prevented all further mischief. In the rest of 
their journey to the Zambesi they met with nothing but 
good-will. 

The forms of salutation among the Natives are base 
and grovelling ; and among some of the tribes towards 
the Kafue the men go in perfect nudity, and sneer with 
much contempt at the unmanly custom of wearing any 
covering. The women, however, wear a more modest dress, 
though they are by no means prodigal in drapery. 

All the people of this country are, at a certain age, 
deprived of their upper incisors. Sebituane and Sekeletu 
have made this vile mutilation unlawful. But no matter ! 
Fashion here, as elsewhere, drives law and reason to the 
winds : and as soon as the children arrive at a certain age 
they are, somehow or other, sure to go abroad without their 
upper front teeth. When Dr Livingstone asked them why 
they did this ; they answered, we make ourselves look like 
cows: with our upper teeth in front our mouths would look 
like the mouths of zebras. A pretty reason certainly ; and 
we may well doubt whether a China woman could give a 
better reason for her cramped feet, or an English woman 
for the iron hoops with which she girds her lower person. 

The country they had left behind, among the abrupt 
valleys branching from the Kafue, not only abounded in 
what our Author calls "the large game," but was well- 



liv PREFATORY LETTER. 

peopled. Every available spot between the river and the 
rugged hills was under cultivation. The gardens were pro- 
tected by pitfalls to keep off the night-attacks of the hip- 
popotamus ; and many of the villages were placed in the 
deep recesses of the successive ridges, as if the poor Natives 
had some reason for hiding themselves from a marauding 
enemy. The cultivated soil is of rare fertility, " and all the 
Natives" (says our Author) "are fond of trade; but they 
have been taught none by the stranger, save that in ivory 
and slaves ;" and when he has come among them, it had 
too often been as a treacherous and brutal ruffian prepared 
to murder them and carry off their children. Teeming with 
riches and natural beauty as the country was, one horrid 
pest — the Tsetse — had come into some portions of it, and 
several of our traveller's oxen were bitten. It was, there- 
fore, the more needful that they should hurry on ; as they 
could not, after the poison of the insect, long count upon the 
useful service of their cattle. 

The night before they reached the Zambesi they halted 
under a baobab-tree, in the hollow of which there was a 
lodging for twenty men : and we need not wonder at this 
when we remember that the Author, in an early part of his 
volume, has described one of these trees which, when mea- 
sured three feet above the ground, proved to be eighty-five 
feet in circumference. While approaching the great river 
they had to make their way through a kind of jungle or 
low woodland, in which the elephants were so tame that 
they had, by shouts and gestures, to drive them out of the 
way : and when they were passing through one of the more 
open glades a drove of buffaloes came trotting down to look 
at the oxen and their riders : nor could they be driven off 
till one of them had been shot for his insulting familiarity. 
Its beef was excellent. But in truth, neither Livingstone 
nor his men were nice; and during their laborious daily 
work, they had a craving for animal food, and ate freely, 



PREFATORY LETTER. lv 

■whenever they could, of any grass-devouring beast that fell 
in their way. They were glad to eat a tough steak from 
the rump of a zebra, when they could get nothing better; 
they rejoiced over the carcass of an elephant; and they 
swallowed, with delight, a fat slice from the flitch of a young 
hippopotamus. Fat, in the language of the African, is the 
word that describes everything that is good. The air was 
filled with water-fowl, and out of them, had their ammunition 
been more abundant, they could easily have secured a meal 
for the whole party. " I never saw a river," he tells us, 
"with so much animal life around it, and, as the Barotse 
say, its fish and fowl are always fat." 

At length his eyes were gladdened by the sight of the 
great river, and he found its waters of a dark reddish 
brown colour — an impurity no doubt derived from the 
neighbouring hills through which it and its tributaries had 
worked their way. Above the Victoria Falls the waters of 
the Zambesi are clear and colourless; and so are all its 
branches, as above stated, which come soaking out of the 
vast upland bogs. It appeared broader now than it did 
above the falls. A man might in vain try to make his 
voice heard across it; and it ran at the rate of four miles 
and a half an hour. 

He is careful in his use of definite numbers ; and he 
often cautions the reader while he is only guessing. Thus, 
his latitudes were observed daily when the sun was visible. 
His longitudes were given by the chronometer; but he 
tested them by lunar observations whenever he had a good 
opportunity. In like spirit, and always seeking for a 
good numerical result, he made an approximation to the 
full speed of the ostrich by counting its steps with his stop- 
watch in hand ; and then — having by actual measurement 
upon the sand, got the average length of each step — he 
found that it could run, for a short time, at the rate of 
twenty-six miles an hour. 



lvi PREFATORY LETTER. 

They were now commencing the second part of their 
journey, between ridges of hills which flank the north and 
south banks of the great river, and are supposed to be about 
fifteen miles apart. The climate was changed: there was 
an oppressive steaminess in the air, and the rain that de- 
scended on them felt hot. In the glorious fresh uplands, 
the rain would bring down the thermometer to 68° or 72° •' 
but down in the valley of the Zambesi, they found that its 
lowest range, in the coolest shade, was from 82° to 86° at sun- 
rise — from 96° to 98° at mid-day — and 86° at sun-set; and 
to increase their discomforts they were attacked by an in- 
sect with a sting like a musquito. 

Still, their daily labours were not without some charms. 
Their pathway through the bush was along the tracks of 
wild animals ; " and of such there was no lack ; for buffaloes, 
zebras, pallahs, water-bucks, wild-pigs, koodoos, and black 
antelopes were in abundance;" and they shot a second 
buffalo as he was rolling himself in the mud. While they 
travelled eastward they found a simple-hearted and hospit- 
able people; and day by day they saw the men, women and 
children working and weeding among their grain and garden 
grounds ; and as they journeyed onwards, from village to 
village, they were cheerfully supplied with guides to shew 
them the way through the thinnest parts of the jungle. 
Some of the superstitions of the poor Natives are indeed 
barbarous ; and the women have some strange forms of per- 
sonal decoration. For not content with the pouting lip that 
nature has given in such bounty to the African, they enlarge 
it by the insertion of a shell. When Sekwebu was asked 
the reason for this decoration, he gravely answered ; " these 
women want to make their mouths look like the mouths of 
ducks." A pretty reason certainly ; and well it is that the 
limits of African fashion are bounded by the forms of 
created life. In Europe, the boundless views of fashion will 
not submit to any such mean, servile limitations. 



PREFATORY LETTER. lvii 

At Selote they were for the first time presented with 
rice — "the white man's food" — and for the first time they 
were asked for a slave in exchange. These were words of 
evil omen; and soon afterwards they met with signs of 
hostility and defiance: but they were a strong party; and 
Livingstone, helped by his right-hand man Sekwebu, soon 
found means to pacify the Natives. Nor does he blame 
them much : for they might well suspect treachery from a 
party, headed by a strange white man, such as they had 
never seen before. They knew, alas ! too much of trea- 
chery; for marauding scoundrels had at different times 
come up from Tete, and swept away some of the inhabitants 
from the islands and river-banks : and not long before, an 
Italian ruffian with some well-armed followers had come on 
the like mission. Fortunately he had been cut off, while 
on his return, and his captive slaves set free. 

Game continued abundant; and they were obliged to 
slaughter some of the tsetse-bitten oxen that had gradually 
become unfit for work. Before crossing the broad river 
Loangwa they met with still more decided proofs of trea- 
chery, and were in great risk of an attack. But they were 
well prepared ; and Livingstone's courage, followed bywords 
of peace and good-will, gradually won the Natives over. 
The party crossed the river; and they then parted with 
their ferry-men under some fine tamarind and mango-trees. 
Here they found the ruins of a Portuguese station ; and we 
can neither wonder at its ruins, nor mourn over its fallen 
church, when we know that it was simply a military position 
for the defence of dealers in slaves and ivory. Its position 
is, however, noble — well fitted as a settlement for Chris- 
tian dealers who wish to improve the Natives in the honest 
arts of peace. 

After leaving the Loangwa, the last of the riding-oxen 
failed, and they had all to travel on foot; and their diffi- 
culties were increased by the sickness of one of the party 



lviii PREFATORY LETTER. 

— a man of the Batoka tribe. His complaint was mysterious 
and beyond the Doctor's skill. Is it not possible that the bite 
of the tsetse, which killed the cattle, may have also killed the 
poor African ? While moving eastward through the bush, a 
herd of buffaloes came driving through their ranks and tossed 
one of the men ; but by careful treatment he was not long 
in recovering. They then journeyed on through holmes 
and river-terraces — often gazing on the herds of buffaloes 
and antelopes which were quietly grazing in the meadows 
below them. They met with maize as fine as any that is 
grown in America, and all of them were amply supplied 
with what they stood in need of. " In few other countries 
(says the Author), would 114 sturdy vagabonds be supplied 
as we were by the generosity of the head-men and the 
villagers." Though far away from home they were (one 
excepted) strong and in brave spirits: and the jolly crew 
joined in dance with the villagers. The young women 
were delighted, " Dance for me (they said), and I will grind 
corn for you." Sekwebu (who had lived on the lower Zam- 
besi while a boy) cried out with joy, "Did I not tell you 
(before we left Linyanti) that these people had hearts?" 

Still they were in great difficulties. The fly-stricken 
oxen which remained could not move two miles an hour. Tete 
had been wrongly placed on their maps; for they found 
that it was on the south bank of the Zambesi. All the great 
Chiefs farther down on the north bank were in hostility 
with the Portuguese, and certainly would not allow a 
white man to pass down toward Tete on that side; and the 
friendly head-men of the villages, through which they 
passed, did not dare to ferry them across the Zambesi 
in disobedience to the commands of the Chief, Mpende. 
Through downright necessity they were, therefore, forced 
to bend their way to his head-quarters in the hope of ob- 
taining his leave to cross the river. 

On the 23rd of January they encamped close to Mpende's 



PREFATORY LETTER. lix 

station ; and met with fierce signs of war. There was next 
morning imminent risk of an attack; and to prepare his 
men for battle Dr Livingstone slaughtered an ox. His 
men were veterans in marauding and longed for a fight. In 
anticipation of a victory they talked, while the roasting went 
on, of carrying off the women (in the old Roman fashion), 
and of pressing their enemies to bear their tusks for them 
to the coast. ' ' We shall now, they said, get both corn and 
clothes in plenty." 

But this was not the plan of Livingstone. He had no 
fear of the result of a fight : but by handing a leg of the ox 
as a peace-offering to Mpende he obtained a parley. I am 
hot an enemy, he said, to two old men, sent by the Chief; 
I am a Lekoa (an Englishman). ic We thought you were a 
Mozunga (a Portuguese), the tribe with which we have 
been fighting." Fortunately they had only seen half-caste 
slave-dealers ; and when Livingstone shewed them his skin, 
they were convinced that he spoke truth, and added, "Ah! 
you must be one of that tribe that has a heart to the black 
men." There was then a new discussion. Sekwebu was 
sent to Mpende as Livingstone's representative. Some of 
the leading men were convinced before; and Sekwebu's 
eloquence and prudence soon won over the great Chief, 
who believed that the white stranger who had come among 
them was a true Lekoa — " one of the friendly white tribe." 
His heart was won, and from that moment he gave them 
all the help in his power. Most thankful was Dr Living- 
stone on gaining his end without bloodshed, and delighted 
to find the English name thus spoken of with respect and 
kindness by the poor Natives of central Africa. 

Next day they were ferried across to an island; and the 
day following (the 25th of January) they all passed safely 
to the south bank of the Zambesi. The river is stated to be 
],200 yards wide from bank to bank; and they crossed 
about 700 or 800 yards of deep water, flowing at the rate 



Ix PREFATORY LETTER. 

of a little less than four miles an hour ; and this was by no 
means the season of high water. Thus they finished, in 
twenty-five days, their journey along the left bank of the 
great river. 

Very thankful was Livingstone when he found himself 
and all his crew landed on the right bank of the Zambesi. 
After he had sent back a grateful offering to Mpende, they 
descended to an island belonging to the Chief Mozinkwa. 
In that neighbourhood they were long detained by continued 
rains, and by the illness of the poor fellow of the Batoka tribe ; 
who had for some time before been carried or supported by 
his companions. When his case became hopeless, the Ma- 
kololo wished to leave him ; but to that proposal our Author 
could not think for a moment of giving his consent. At 
length the sick man died : and soon afterwards another man, 
of the same tribe, deserted from them to Mozinkwa. He 
did this openly — stating that the Makololo had killed both 
his father and mother, and that he would not remain with 
them any longer. To this Dr Livingstone made no objec- 
tion — only telling him that, if he changed his mind, he 
would be received back into their company ; and at the same 
time telling Mozinkwa that the man must not be treated as 
a slave. On the lower part of the river they were sure to 
meet with many treacherous slave-dealers, and it would not 
do for them to have any unwilling followers. 

Considering that the men were of many tribes, and had 
been used to marauding warfare, their whole conduct had 
indeed been excellent; and a good discipline had been main- 
tained among them by the firmness and kindness of their 
leader ; who kept the tribes separate at their resting-places, 
and made the head-man of each tribe responsible for the 
conduct of those who were under him. Occasionally they 
were visited by Natives who had been down as far as Tete ; 
and there had heard of the English tribe that hated and 
put down the slave-trade. The English are men, said 



PREFATORY LETTER. lxi 

one of them, addressing himself to Sekwebu; and on sucli 
reports Livingstone rose higher than ever in the love and 
honour of his crew. Even the people who had been tempted 
to sell their children felt a bitter resentment against the 
slave-dealer: and when asked whether they had not received 
the dealer's goods in exchange, they said they had; but he 
had done them wrong in tempting them. 

About the end of January, 1856, the party were again on 
their way; and early in February, Dr Livingstone gave two 
small tusks in exchange for some calico, which his men 
were much in need of: for after travelling three months 
through the bush they were all in a very ragged condition, 
and some of the men had not a scrap of any covering. The 
country became greatly changed. They were no longer 
among beds of micaceous slate, but among beds of sand- 
stone which, by their decomposition, made the river-fords 
difficult and treacherous: and sometimes they had to make 
their way over beds of a reddish clay, and a slippery adhe- 
sive soil, that was very tiresome to walk upon. The ground 
was, however, fertile and produced abundant crops of " corn, 
maize, millet, ground-nuts and pumpkins." When away 
from the river — which is the great slave-mart — and not them- 
selves suspected, they were received with every mark of 
good-will. Provisions were supplied with cheerfulness and 
in abundance, while they had little or nothing to give in re- 
turn. In the villages many of the huts are built on raised 
platforms to protect the people from the lions and hyaenas 
— two cowardly beasts, but sometimes dangerous in the 
night; and the lions are extremely abundant, being pro- 
tected from the hunter's weapons through a strange super- 
stition before alluded to (p. xviii). 

Hoping to find an easier pathway, and wishing to avoid 
all treacherous slave-dealers, they afterwards struck into the 
interior: and on the 13th of February they came to the village 
of a head-man called Nyampungo, offered him the last piece 



lxii PREFATORY LETTER. 

of cloth they had, and asked for provisions and a guide. 
The Chief received them with courtesy, and conferred with 
his council. He then returned the cloth, and gave rice to 
Livingstone, and told him to send his men to seek food 
among the villagers. A venerable old man, the father-in- 
law of the Chief, came with some others to the tent, and 
examined the books, and other curiosities they found there, 
and inquired about their use. They spoke of praying to de- 
parted Chiefs ; but the thought of praying to God was new 
to them ; and on this subject "they listened to what they 
heard with reverence." They are anxious to keep cattle, but 
are prevented by the prevalence of the tsetse; and being igno- 
rant of the cause of their misfortune, they asked for medicine; 
"give it us, they said, that it may enable us to keep them." 
This kind of superstition is universal in central Africa. 

Next morning (the 14th) they left their hospitable friend, 
who had provided them with guides. They were led to 
a part of the country that was more free from the jungle, 
and were then enabled to walk on in comfort. Having tasted 
nothing for several days but grain, they had a great longing 
for animal food, and kept a sharp look out for some large 
game ; and after a few hours march, they spied an elephant. 
They instantly attacked him, and after a splendid spear- 
battle, gallantly brought him to the earth. While the 
battle was going on, one of the native Banyai, who hap- 
pened to be present, emptied his snuffbox on the ground 
as an offering to Barimo; and one of Nyampungo's men, 
who was at Livingstone's side, uttered loud prayers for the 
success of the combat. " I admired," he says, " the belief 
they all possessed of the existence of unseen beings; and I 
prayed that they might yet know that one benignant Being 
who views us all as His own." 

After the elephant was down, and while the Makololo 
were wildly dancing round his body, the man who had 
made the snuff-offering remarked: "I see you are travel- 



PREFATORY LETTER. lxiii 

ling with a people who do not know how to pray, I there- 
fore offered the only thing I had, in their behalf, and the 
elephant soon fell." The travelling crew were indeed less 
religious; and they thought (like Hector) that the best of 
omens was to fight the enemy and beat him if they could. 
One of them however said, as Livingstone came up to 
them, "God gave it to us;" and then turning round ad- 
dressed the carcass — "Go up there! men are come who 
will kill and eat you." 

But the feast could not begin that day: for by a law in 
the country south of the Zambesi, the side of every beast, killed 
in hunting, which first comes to the ground is the property of 
the neighbouring Chief; and no one dares touch the carcass 
till he or his agents are present to see fair play. By good 
luck the upper tusk was the best ; and after a division of the 
spoil it was the property of the hunters. Next day a large 
party came from the Chief with corn and a fowl and some 
other gifts to them for having slain the elephant on his land. 
They thanked the Barimo for the hunters' success, and then 
added, " There it is, eat and be glad!" There was a large 
party to join in the noisy feast; but there was meat in 
abundance for them all; and when they had retired, they 
for two whole nights heard the loud laughter of great packs 
of hyaenas which had gathered round the offal. " They are 
laughing, said one of the crew, because we could not take in 
the whole, and that they have plenty to eat as well as we." 

But the crew of travellers were soon to leave the simple- 
hearted hospitable Natives, and to find their way through 
tribes of a far different character — men thoroughly corrupted 
by the slave-dealers of a Christian state, and accustomed to 
acts of treachery and extortion. The men, as they journeyed 
through the Mopana country, robbed many nests of the 
korwe (or red-beaked hornbill), of which a long and curious 
account is given; and the honey-guides enabled them to pro- 
cure quantities of honey. They became utterly fool-hardy in 



lxiv PREFATORY LETTER. 

the pursuit — venturing into woods in spite of all remon- 
strances from the Native-guides. Not one of them, however, 
was caught by the lions which abound throughout these 
forests. The country had still a good supply of large game, 
and they one day killed six buffalo-calves out of a single 
herd they met on their way. But the climate and long- 
continued labour began to tell upon them, and their pro- 
gress was slow. " The rains had fallen heavily, and when 
they lifted up the rank grass which lay over their path, 
they felt as if a hot blast had risen against their faces : 
everything looked unwholesome ; but they had no fever." 

On the 20th they reached Monima's village. He was 
one of a set of great Chiefs bordering on the Portuguese 
settlements, some of whom have obtained a place in his- 
tory, and he was the first Chief who gave them any grounds 
for fear. One of them has been called "the Emperor 
Monomotapa:" but these men have few visible proofs of 
greatness ; excepting the number of their wives and their 
imperial acts of extortion whenever a good occasion offers. 
Livingstone calls the government "A sort of feudal repub- 
licanism;" for the Chiefs are elected, and never from the 
right line of descent. The choice is made out of the late 
Chief's relations — such for example as the sons of his brothers 
or sisters. To keep this institution entire, the sons of the 
reigning Chief have fewer privileges than the ordinary free 
men. They have also training institutions at their courts, 
which remind us of one of the customs of the ancient Persians. 

Monima received them with a haughty courtesy, seemed 
to despise their poor presents, and told them that he had 
absolute power over the country in their front. But there 
was no hostility in his manner ; and his little son came to 
see their encampment, accepted a knife, and then ran back 
to bring them a small pot of honey. The council were more 
hostile ; for they seemed to think that the party of travellers 
must have some concealed treasures with them, and that 



PREFATORY LETTER. lxv 

Livingstone was dealing falsely with them. However this 
might be, in the evening they got up a war-dance near the 
encampment; and the younger men came armed with guns, 
bows and arrows and spears. No attack was however made : 
the war-dance ceased an hour or two after dark, and the 
armed Natives went away. Our travellers then went to 
rest with their arms by their side — ready to fight in case of 
a night-attack. In the course of the night Monahin, one of 
the head-men, walked out, as if to look towards the village — 
saying to one of the men who was half asleep, " Don't you 
hear what these people are saying? Go and listen !" The 
poor fellow never came back. To his great sorrow Living- 
stone found, in the morning, that Monahin was missing. 
He does not accuse any of the Natives of treachery; but 
rather believes that Monahin had walked off in a state 
of stupor or insanity; and been perhaps, caught and car- 
ried off by a prowling lion. Monima, with apparent 
honesty, joined in their sorrow, and sent his men to search 
in all the neighbouring gardens for the poor fellow who had 
strayed away. All search was, however, vain; and the 
Chief then dismissed the party in peace, and gave them 
guides to the next Chief, Nyakdba. 

In a few hours, the guides led them to the Chief's vil- 
lage. He suspected them of falsehood; but they escaped 
from him, more easily than they expected, by giving him 
"some beads taken from Sekwebu's girdle, and by pro- 
mising to send him four yards of calico from Tete." While 
on their way they had met a witch-doctor, who had been 
sent for by Momma; whose many wives had that day, under 
the prescription of this grave doctor, to swallow a poisonous 
infusion used by him as an ordeal. The poor women, in 
full faith, and knowing that they are innocent, swallow it 
readily ; and will even express a strong desire to try the 
test. If it make them sick, all is well: they are innocent 
and have only to kill a cock as a thank-offering : but if not 

7 



lxvl PREFATORY LETTER. 

sick, they are judged guilty and burnt to death. Horrible 
as this custom is, we can match it by the solemn decisions 
of our own courts of justice within a little more than two 
hundred years of the times in which we live. 

Spite of these judicial horrors, which perhaps only 
affect the harem of the Chief, the women in this part 
of the country are of great authority. " The women are 
masters here," one day remarked Sekwebu. The children 
are the property of the wife and not of the husband: and 
not only is he compelled to honour her by tender and 
pleasant acts of obedience, but he has also to perform some 
servile acts for his mother-in-law, and to appear before her 
in a crouching posture. The old ladies, hearing of the 
hunting skill of the Makololo, tried to secure some of them 
for their daughters; but the brave fellows would not swal- 
low the bait; for they had no taste for such a new form of 
petticoat government. Nyakoba had granted them a guide, 
who accepted a hoe as his fee; but when the hour of start- 
ing came he told them "that his wife would not let him 
go." " Then give us back the hoe," was the reply. " I 
want it," he rejoined, " and my wife won't let me." 

To avoid the probable loss of all Sekeletu's tusks — a 
treasure they had kept sacred — and the great risk of having 
to fight their way to the Portuguese frontier, they now 
resolved to avoid the villages, and to find their way as best 
they could. As a good omen the birds were singing sweetly, 
and Livingstone thought that he heard the canary, as he had 
done the year before in Loanda. They passed the carcass 
of a lion that had been gored to death by a buffalo; and 
made a winding course to avoid Katolosa (or ts the Empe- 
ror Monomotapa"), who seems to have little mercy on 
those who fall into his hands. They all obtained an occa- 
sional help from men who were on their way to the market 
of Tete : and though the thermometer never rose above 94°, 
the heat was far more oppressive than it had been during 



PREFATORY LETTER. lxvii 

their journey through the uplands, when the temperature 
was much higher than it was now. The Natives were men 
of fine stature; wore their hair in a fashion like that of the 
old Egyptians; were of cleanly habits; and were of a 
light coffee and milk colour, which is considered a test of 
beauty through all the country. 

The party were compelled to make short stages; for 
they were all becoming emaciated from fatigue, and one of 
them was ill: and for a few days, while they avoided all 
human habitations, they lived on mushrooms they picked off 
the ant-hills; on bulbs and tubers the Makololo knew how 
to gather ; on honey ; or on such fruits as the forests gave 
them. They had to march over rough gravel, like the shingle 
of an old sea-beach; and on the first of March they slept on 
the flank of the hill Zimika, and were then, for the first time, 
in sight of hills with bare rocky summits. On the previous 
day they had crossed over broad dykes of syenitic porphyry 
— ranging north and south. 

Next day they started in good hope of reaching Tete 
without further interruption ; but some villagers under the 
authority of Katolosa pursued and came up with them. By 
a bribe of two small tusks they were allowed to pass on — 
a cheap purchase of neutrality. Had they fallen into the 
hands of the great Chief (even though the Makololo had 
escaped with personal freedom and Livingstone with life) 
they would almost certainly have been plundered of Seke- 
letu's store of tusks, which they had with such enormous 
labour brought so far across the Continent. 

Only eight miles from Tete, and too much tired to sleep, 
he lay down in the evening on the rough ground, and sent 
some of his men, who were less fatigued, to carry his 
letters from the Bishop and his other friends at Loanda to 
the Commandant at Tete. About two o'clock in the morn- 
ing (March 3rd) the Makololo gave the alarm of an ap- 
proaching enemy. The nocturnal visitors turned out to be 

7—2 



lxviii PREFATORY LETTER. 

the friends they had longed for. Two officers and a com- 
pany of soldiers were come from Tete "bringing with them 
the materials for a civilized breakfast." A good breakfast 
they soon had, and our Author speaks of it in terms of 
delightful remembrance — classing its comfort with that 
of Mr Gabriel's bed on the day he reached Loanda. All 
fatigue vanished, and the party made their way joyfully over 
the rough shingles to the Commandant's house at Tete. 
Thus they had, exactly in four months, completed their 
fatiguing, and sometimes perilous journey from Linyanti. 

I might here conclude this sketch of the joint labours of 
our Author and his loyal followers: but there are one or two 
points in the remaining chapters of the Missionary Travels 
which give the last touches to his picture of the Africans. 
From their long journey through the bush, and latterly from 
want of food, they all arrived at Tete in a ragged and emaciated 
condition. The Commandant, Tito Augusto d'Araujo Sicard, 
a Major in the Portuguese Service, received them with a most 
generous welcome. The 111 Makololo were immediately well 
fed, clothed, and provided with a lodging in the Residence; 
and they were then put in a way of building themselves huts 
which might be their homes during their master's absence in 
England: and immediately (like the Makololo w r hen they 
reached Loanda) the honest fellows began to work as free 
labourers in the best way they could. Major Sicard, hearing 
of their skill in hunting the elephant, afterwards proposed 
that they should occasionally join his servants in hunting 
expeditions — a proposal which they joyfully accepted. It was 
provided also, by his authority, that proper wages should be 
secured for them; so that they might not go back to Linyanti 
empty-handed, whenever their master might return from 
England to conduct them home. 

Livingstone was received as if he had been a brother — 
not only by the Commandant, but by every one in authority 
at Tete and other parts of the Colony. Like his men he was 



PREFATORY LETTER. lxix 

in want of a dress fit for society ; and he was so reduced in 
strength that good food and rest were most needful for him. 
He had, indeed, an ample experience of the kindness of his 
Portuguese friends; for Tete and its neighbourhood formed 
his head-quarters for full seven weeks, before he began to 
descend the Zambesi on his way to the sea-coast. Just as he 
was about to start he wrote: — "I am happy to acknowledge 
that I received most disinterested kindness; and I ought to 
speak well for ever of Portuguese hospitality." 

So soon as he was sufficiently recovered to bear fatigue, he 
visited a coal formation on the left bank of the Zambesi — 
already known to the Colonists. But to him it was a very in- 
teresting discovery; as he was speculating on the possibility 
of a steam-boat navigation on the lower Zambesi — not merely 
for an exploring party, but hereafter, it was hoped, for lawful 
and humane commerce. 

From Tete he also visited the site of the once flourish- 
ing Jesuit establishment of Micombo. The Fraternity were 
in former times " immensely rich, but they had not there the 
popularity they enjoyed at Loanda:" and perhaps the reason 
of this may be found in the fact that they were keen trad- 
ers in ivory and gold; and we know that these trades 
had been carried on by slave-labour, or through slave-deal- 
ers. But " all praise to their industry, and whatever they 
did they did with all their might," remarks Livingstone. 
He is a large-hearted man: and though bred in the severe 
Protestantism of his own country, and honestly receiving its 
doctrine as Scriptural, he has more than once said a good 
word for the Jesuits. With a rare catholicity of spirit (in 
the true sense of catholicity), he can think with charity 
of any Christian brother, who is willing to devote himself 
heartily to the instruction and amendment of his humble 
fellow-creatures. 

During this interval he also accumulated much valu- 
able information respecting the statistics of the Colony; its 



lxx PREFATORY LETTER. 

fertility and climate; its vegetable products, that may, perhaps, 
hereafter be turned to medical and commercial use; its pro- 
bable possession of a substitute for the Cinchona (or Peruvian 
bark); its minerals, gems, and iron; its relations to the 
country farther north — with some account of the Chiefs and 
their forms of government, that may be useful to future explorers 
of the Continent. His benevolent and practical mind found 
ample stores for employment. Once, however (April 4th), he 
was smitten by fever : but he soon recovered " by the use of 
his wonted remedies." 

The general condition of the Colony was very gloomy. 
Its supplies of wealth had been partly cut off by the abolition 
of its export trade in slaves. Its gold washings had become 
unproductive by some acts of strange improvidence. It had 
been desolated by a fierce, ill-conducted Caffre war; which 
only ended in a precarious peace, lately gained through the 
prudence and humanity of Major Si card — a man justly popular 
with the Natives as well as the Colonists. And to add to 
this list of misfortunes, a portion of the Delta of the Zambesi 
was desolated by a terrible famine, which was prevailing at 
the time of Dr Livingstone's arrival at Tete. 

At length (April the 22nd), they started on their way 
down the river — the Commandant generously providing them 
with three large trading canoes, under the command of Lieu- 
tenant Miranda, containing ample supplies for the voyage; and 
our Author had selected, for this special service, ten of his 
men who were best skilled in navigating canoes. Their pro- 
gress down the stream was rapid; and at Lupata the river 
made its way through a kind of gorge, and was so contracted 
as to be less than 300 yards wide. But its depth must there 
be enormous, as the current is not too violent to prevent a 
steam-boat from ascending through the narrows. The upward 
passage might be effected without any difficulty. Afterwards 
the river spreads over a wide surface and moves down among 
many islands. 



PREFATORY LETTER. lxxi 

In four days they descended to Senna — a Portuguese town 
in a grievous state of depression, chiefly from the effects of the 
Caffre war. To ascend from this place to Tete takes twenty 
days; and the trading boats are sometimes to be pulled 
against the stream by ropes from the shore. On the left 
bank of the river, opposite Senna, are mountains of a fine 
form. One of them has a hot sulphurous spring on its 
north side; and, from its form, appears to be volcanic. It 
is conjectured to be three or four thousand feet high: but 
our Author was not permitted to visit it. After leaving 
Senna they were soon floated down to Mazaro, which is at 
the head of the Delta. The river immediately above this 
place is more than half a mile wide, is without islands, and its 
banks are covered with forests of fine timber. But the Delta 
below is only an immense flat; covered with high coarse grass 
and reeds, and with here and there a few mango and cocoa-nut 
trees. Through this Delta the river works its way sea- ward 
in many channels. 

At Mazaro our Author had his last severe attack of 
fever. After being tormented some days by fever, and horribly 
stung by musquitoes, he sailed through the northern branch of 
the Zambesi with his African companions, and they reached 
Kilimane on the 20th of May, 1856. There he found a supply 
of quinine and wine, which he stood much in need of: but his 
joy was embittered by hearing that a boat's crew, commanded 
by Captain MacLune and Lieutenant Woodruffe — who had 
come in the " Dart" expressly to convey him from the coast 
— had been lost on the bar of the river. After returning 
unfeigned thanks to God, " who mercifully watched over 
him in every position, and influenced the hearts of both black 
and white men to regard him with favour," he adds, " I view 
the end of the geographical feat as the beginning of the mis- 
sionary enterprise. I take the latter term in its most extended 
significance, and include in it every effort made for the amelio- 
ration of our race." 



lxxii PREFATORY LETTER. 

Eight of his men were sent back : for the position was 
very unhealthy, and provisions were still scarce; so that now 
only two of his black friends continued with him. After re- 
maining about six weeks — during which time he experienced the 
greatest kindness from Colonel Nunes — II. M. brig " Frolic" 
arrived off Kilimane, bringing abundant supplies of every thino- 
he stood in need of. It was sent from the Cape, for the 
purpose of offering him a passage to the Mauritius, which 
he thankfully accepted. Sekwebu, the intelligent brave 
Chief who had so often stood at his "Father's" right hand in 
his hour of need, was permitted to embark with him. The 
other poor African begged hard to be taken with them: and 
it wrings one's heart to read that it was the expense which 
prevented Livingstone from granting the poor fellow's earnest 
wish. The Author's concluding words must here be quoted, 
" I said to him, ' You will die if you go to such a cold country 
as mine.' ' That is nothing,' he reiterated. ' Let me die at 
your feet!'" 

Such are the men whose homes and houses the slave- 
dealers steal upon ; murdering some, and carrying off more 
in chained gangs to the coast — there to be sold to civilized men 
who disgrace their Christian name by such vile commerce. 
And within the early years of this century, England and other 
States of Europe, were so blinded by the lust of gain, that, 
for its sake, they became the cruel accessaries and tempters 
of these foul murderous dealers, and the cowardly receivers of 
their plunder! Nay, during these years, some of the richest 
cities in this land sent representatives to Parliament, to plead 
for and to uphold these abominations; and to stigmatize, with 
the names of fanatics and fools, those good men, like Clark- 
son, who had the Christian humanity and courage to raise 
their voices against a traffic that was a foul dishonour to their 
country. 

Sekwebu was the only one of the African party who 
embarked (July 12, 1856,) with Livingstone. He was a man 



PREFATORY LETTER. Ixxiii 

of great natural intelligence, and had been of constant service 
to his friends, by his good sense, tact, and command of the 
dialects of the tribes on the lower portion of the great river. 
Without his help (writes our Author), " I believe we should 
scarcely have reached the coast: and I thought it would be 
beneficial to him to see the effects of civilization and to report 
them to his countrymen: I wished also to make some return 
for his important services." The poor African soon began to 
pick up some English ; became a favourite both with the 
officers and men; was much pleased with his company; and 
began to have some notion of the use of the sextant. He was 
however bewildered by the strange world of waters; and 
being a thoughtful man, there was a constant and unhealthy 
strain upon his untutored mind. The night after they reached 
the Mauritius, the excitement was too much for him, and he 
became insane, and seemed to think of drowning himself. 
By kind words he was somewhat soothed; but the officers 
proposed to secure him from mischief by putting him in irons. 
To this Livingstone objected: for he could not bear to think 
of having it said at Linyanti, on their return, that he had 
put such a disgrace on one of his principal men, and chained 
him as if he had been a slave. Perhaps this tenderness was 
unfortunate; for the following evening, the poor African under 
a fresh access of insanity, " tried to spear one of the crew, 
and then leapt overboard: and though he could swim well, 
pulled himself down, hand under hand, by the chain cable; 
and his body was never seen again." 

This is a sorrowful passage in the concluding page of a 
large Volume filled with matter of deep interest, and written 
throughout in a spirit of thankfulness, cheerfulness, and hope. 
Perhaps some Cambridge men, when they read this passage, 
will think of the joyful greeting we should have given poor 
Sekwebu, had it been God's will that he should appear on the 
platform of our Senate-House at the side of his "Father." 
TVe should have welcomed him and greeted him as a brother 



lxxiv PREFATORY LETTER. 

— perhaps then as a Christian brother. But that additional 
happiness was not granted us. 

I have now, My dear Sir, complied with a part of your 
request, and brought my sketch of our friend's long journey 
in Africa, to a close. If I have been slow in the performance 
of my promise, I have a good excuse to offer you in my behalf. 
When I began my letter in March, I hoped to finish it in three 
or four days; and what I first wrote was, without delay, 
sent to the press and set up in type. But I soon became 
too ill to go on with my task; and to my sorrow, it was 
interrupted for several weeks : and when I had again taken 
up my pen, I was too often compelled to lay it down again, 
after I had written a few sentences — sometimes insufficient 
to make a single paragraph. Thus it has happened that the 
press has been very ill supplied by me, and that I have so 
long detained your work from the public. The assertion may 
appear strange to you; but it is true, that the weary and 
sometimes painful manner in which I have been writing, has 
led me into details that I hardly thought of when I began; 
and has caused me to drag out my letter to an unreasonable 
length, in contradiction to some of the very words which 
are printed in its early pages. Certainly it is of, at least, 
four or five times the length I thought of when I began. But 
let me not detain you, or the reader, with any more of my 
apologies. 

If you ask me what have been the objects I had most 
in view while I was writing the previous sketch, I reply — 
that I in the first place wished to shew the true character of a 
Christian hero through the clear light of his own works — 
through the constancy, and faith, and courage, and wisdom, 
which supported him in the midst of many dangers and 
great trials; and at length brought him safely out of them, 
and restored him in honour to his friends and countrymen. 

Secondly, I hoped to bring out, from the graphic deline- 
ations of our Author, the true character of the Natives of 



PREFATORY LETTER. lxxv 

central Africa. For he knew them long and well. They 
had learned to call him Father, and he loved them as his 
children: and to prove that this was not, on his part, an idle 
and inoperative sentiment (for words of love cost little, and 
may sometimes be used to turn and grace a sentence), he is 
now gone again to the Zambesi, with his wife (Ma-Robert) 
and his son — willing with them to encounter fresh toils, and 
to brave the climate of Africa; and hoping with them to carry 
the message of peace and good- will to its poor inhabitants. 

The living pictures of our Author do not shew us the black 
man as he is seen in the base, crouching attitude of a slave. 
Sometimes he may be well treated while he is in that condition 
(for a good man may have the social misfortune to possess 
slaves, however infamous he may count the slave-dealer) ; but 
while a slave he is liable, at every turn of fortune or wanton- 
ness of caprice, to be trampled on by those who are stronger 
than himself. Nor is the African often painted by Livingstone 
as he is seen on the outskirts of his own Continent, corrupted 
and brutalized by his commerce with civilized dealers in the 
flesh and blood of men — dealers who have tempted him to 
abominable sin, led him to cast away all the true elements of 
his humanity, and taught him nothing that deserves the name 
of good. But he is here put before us in his true colours — 
with all the elements of good and evil that belong to his 
native, unsophisticated character. Barbarous he may be, and 
liable to gusts of passion that sometimes carry him to deeds of 
savage violence : ignorant he may be, and the slave of a gross 
idolatry: but he is not insensible to kindness; he is not 
unwilling to be taught and raised to something that belongs 
to a far higher order of humanity. And take him as he is, — 
untaught, ignorant of the arts of life, and the sport of savage 
passion — yet has he learnt to be faithful to his leader; to be 
true to his word, and honest in his dealings; and he has learnt 
so much of the nature of social union, that he is loyal to his 
Chief, and proud of his tribe and name ; and he has many of 



Ixxvi PREFATORY LETTER. 

those points of character which, among civilized men, are 
called honour and patriotism. Nor is he a mere fierce and 
wandering hunter, like the Red-Indian of North America. 
For though he does love to follow the "large game," and to 
bring back their spoils for commerce ; he also delights in agri- 
culture and dwells contentedly among his gardens and fields of 
corn ; longs to possess new implements and arts of culture, 
that he may turn them to profit; delights to improve his 
stock of domestic animals, to exchange produce with neigh- 
bouring Tribes, and thus to learn the arts of peace. Above 
all, he longs for the improved arts and the commerce of the 
white-men; whose fame has reached him, but whose persons 
he has never seen. 

Or taking the moral side of the African's character, as 
it is here delineated: — We find that he believes in God, but 
does not know how to worship Him. He offers prayers to 
his dead Chiefs; and if he endeavour to propitiate the Barimo, 
it is by charms and vain formalities. He is a creature of 
cheerful temper, and of warm affections; and if we con- 
sider his humble and untaught condition, we may well 
regard him as a being framed by the hand of his Creator 
with good capacities, which, under Christian guidance, may 
raise him to the social level of a happy and useful civilized 
man. 

Such is the living picture we see in the pages of our Au- 
thor. And a picture of like tints, though drawn with much 
less extended knowledge and far fewer touches, is found in 
the excellent volume of Mr Galton, written after he had ex- 
tended his travels to Ovampo. He also had seen a large tribe 
of Negroes, whose hearts had not been corrupted by the 
breath of the slave-dealer, and whose land had not been 
blighted by his footsteps. 

It is on such elements as these that the Christian merchant 
and Christian missionary will have to work while they are 
doing their endeavour jointly to benefit the poor African and 



PREFATORY LETTER. lxxvii 

themselves. Thousands will read the Missionary Travels in 
South Africa who have not heard of this letter: but should 
there ever be one single reader of this letter who has not read 
the admirable Volume of Livingstone ; I can only entreat him, 
for his own sake, not to rest contented till he has read it, and 
felt its power. Henceforth it will be a hand-book to all 
Christian men — be they merchants or naturalists or philoso- 
phers or missionaries, or lovers of the works of God under 
whatever name — who may visit South Africa, and have true 
human sympathies for its condition. Under God's blessing, 
may they all conspire together to raise the moral condition of 
that basely injured country! And then we may hope that it 
will rise rapidly in the scale of social life ; and cease to be 
(what it is now) a foul disgrace to Christian Europe. 

There was a third object I had in view before I began 
this letter. I wished to add my name to the long list of those 
who have protested against slavery as a social institution — 
believing that it is in direct antagonism with the pure lessons 
of the Gospel ; and that every national attempt to perpetuate 
or extend it, is an act of open war against humanity and 
Christian truth. And honest men, whatever be their condi- 
tion, will do well at this time to enter a protest against an 
insidious suggestion, which might possibly lead some of the 
great states of Europe to think of importing free labourers 
from Africa to their western Colonies. To do this would be 
to tamper basely with those great legislative acts which form 
the noblest passage of European history within the limits of 
this century — acts which are a public triumph of national 
honour and principle over the selfish calculations of national 
gain — an open avowal that Christian nations are bound by 
the same laws as Christian men; and that, if they look for 
God's blessing, they must count every gain as a loss while 
it is procured at the cost of humanity, or the surrender of 
one link of that golden chain that binds Christian societies 
together in a holy and honourable union. 



Ixxviii PREFATORY LETTER. 

How, we may ask, is any European state to obtain free 
labourers from the black men of Africa? Only, we may 
reply with confidence, by a base bargain with the old slave- 
dealers of that Continent. And were we to grant (and any 
man of common sense may think this a very large grant) that 
the African would be treated well, and truly dealt with as a 
free labourer in the western Colonies; that would not touch 
the fundamental objection to the plan. The great mischief of 
slavery and slave-dealing is, I repeat, at the fountain-head. 
Plausible as some men may have thought the previous sugges- 
tion ; it would, if carried into effect, not only help to perpetu- 
ate the present terrible social evils which afflict large portions 
of Africa, but it would also very greatly aggravate them; and 
it might perhaps extinguish, for many years to come, those 
warm hopes for the good of Africa which have been kindled 
among Christian men, and have had their issue in labours of 
love — the noblest example of which shines out in the Mission- 
ary Travels of Livingstone. 

God forbid that any state in Christendom, after it had 
washed its hands of a foul, selfish and inhuman policy, should, 
in the 19th century, be so grovelling as to return to it! Good 
men who in their hearts believe in a superintending Provi- 
dence, believe also that the moral and physical laws of nature, 
are so ordained that, even in this world, good will have, in 
the end, its triumph over evil. But when that end is to be, 
and by what alternations of good and evil it is to be brought 
about, no mortal man can tell: and it is a vain task for 
him to strain his sight in trying to look through the dark- 
ness that clouds the future. He knows, too, that unmixed 
good there never can be in this world, while it is held together 
by those great laws to which all nature, moral as well as 
physical, is compelled to yield obedience. 

Still a Christian lives in hope ; and with God's help can 
do his duty manfully and cheerfully: not like one who is 
dismayed and stupified by the many evils that he sees around 



PREFATORY LETTER. Ixxix 

him; but who labours like a true-hearted soldier of the Cross; 
aud knows that where there is ignorance and misery it is his 
duty to meet them and subdue them by deeds of love. And 
after all, is it not true that good men, labouring honestly on 
the principles of the Gospel, have done, and are now doing, 
much good work in humanizing the world? Speaking of the 
past, it is absolutely certain that the highest civilization of 
man, since Christ came into the world, has been reached by 
those nations which have accepted (at least nominally) the 
great doctrines of His religion, and professed to make His 
benevolent precepts the guide of their polity. Strangely and 
disgracefully as they often swerved from their holy guide, it 
is still absolutely certain, that all other civilization sinks into 
moral darkness when compared with that which is to be seen 
in Christendom. 

But truth is progressive, and neither men nor nations are 
permitted to remain quiescent on the line of duty; and 
there is work enough before them. Black clouds are now 
hanging on our eastern and western horizon which may portend 
a long night of darkness and tempest: and if I might dare 
to talk of the future, I should perhaps say, that on the great 
question of social slavery hang the coming destinies of man- 
kind, more than on any other that is soon likely to come 
under the arbitration of States and Empires. 

If a great missionary work remains undone; then, to be 
done at all, it must betaken up by those who will begin it hon- 
estly and fervently. But we are often told that the missionary 
office is now undertaken by ignorant, unlettered, uncommis- 
sioned men; who have been heating their imaginations anion o- 
crude prophetic visions, and pillowing their souls on empty 
dreams. It may have been so in some rare instances. Ignorant, 
unlettered men would have little chance of influencing the con- 
victions and turning the hearts of the subtle and civilized 
Hindoo or Mahomedan of Asia — such men as the learned and 
pious Martyn had to deal with. But zeal and sincerity are in 



lxxx PREFATORY LETTER, 

all cases among the good elements of success: and the words 
of the Gospel, and the duties arising out of its commands, 
are so plain and simple, that an honest teacher, gifted with 
common sense, cannot well be mistaken in their application, 
while he is dealing with men of humble state like those of 
central Africa. Whether he be learned or unlearned can 
make little difference in the first doctrines he will have to 
teach, and the first duties he will have to enforce w 7 hen he 
begins to instruct the poor unlettered heathen. Be he wise 
or foolish, as this w T orld counts wisdom and folly, and what- 
ever may have been his social position here, that man deserves 
our grateful praise, who, under God, has been an honoured 
instrument in first spreading the light of truth among the 
heathen, and leading their hearts and wills toward that kind 
of social union which is the commencement of a Christian 
society. 

I remember well the mockery and ribaldry — seasoned with 
pungent wit, and spiced with words which if they helped to 
raise a laugh, served also to raise a blush on a modest cheek 
— by which a party of humble Missionaries, who went out to 
the Islands of the Pacific in the early years of this century, 
were held up to open scorn in some of the most popular 
works of that period. These Missionaries were not learned men ; 
and some of them may have imperfectly known their own 
strength, and ill counted the cost of what they undertook. But 
they were earnest men, and not to be put down by the wit and 
mockery of those who had done, and were willing to do, 
nothing for the civilization and instruction of the licentious 
inhabitants of those beautiful Islands. The Missionaries perse- 
vered against scorn and ill-bodings; and before many years 
were over, their labours were blessed; and they christianized 
the Islands to which they first shaped their course; and their 
goodly victory was, under God, followed by one of the most 
rapid advances in civilization of which we can find an account 
in the moral records of the present century. If some of the 






PREFATORY LETTER. lxxxi 

fruits of this holy triumph have fallen short of expectation, 
and have not been allowed to ripen, that misfortune was not 
the fault either of the Missionaries or the Natives; but was 
the fault of stronger men who, without a plea of law or jus- 
tice, invaded and beat down the inhabitants by force of arms, 
and drove away their Christian teachers. Wisdom is ap- 
proved of her children ; 'and from this good band of Christian 
labourers— once so much mocked and scorned by writers of 
great power and skill — have arisen works we may with truth 
call philosophical; which have advanced the cause of physical 
science ; cast a good light upon the history of a very interesting 
section of the human family ; and added a goodly chapter to 
the religious literature of the present day. 

Just in the same narrow, and I am sorry to say un- 
christian spirit, some of the most popular writers of this 
time — men who have delighted us by their prolific works of 
fiction, and done some service to the cause of humanity and 
justice, national taste, social freedom, and brotherly love — 
have thought fit to blight their laurels by frequent and lusty 
scofftngs at honest acts of public zeal for the instruction of the 
poor natives of heathendom. They write as if every man must 
be a brain heated fanatic who stands up on a public platform 
to plead for his fellow-creatures in distant lands; and as if 
every woman, who goes to listen to him and desires to help 
him, must needs be a simple dreamer, a slattern, a sorry house- 
wife, and a bad mother. Such gross caricatures, if they prove 
nothing else, are a proof of vulgar taste, and may help to do 
some mischief: but they partly carry with them their own 
antidote; for they are nauseously false and ridiculously untrue 
to nature. Who ever doubted that there are, and ever will 
be, great follies even among good men? There will be found 
at all times men who talk of goodness, and make a show of 
it, without loving it for its own sake. Such men are the 
chaff which the blast of ridicule might, perhaps, winnow 
from the corn. But our Bible tells us not to be in too great 

8 



Ixxxii PREFATORY LETTER. 

a hurry to divide the good part of the crop from the bad — 
rather to leave the separation to an unerring hand: and as 
for ourselves it tells us to hope all things, and to live in cha- 
rity with our neighbour. A man who pleads honestly (and 
wisely too) for a cause in which his heart is warm, but for 
which his hearers have no sympathy, may perchance appear to 
them to be acting and talking like a fbol while he is speaking 
the very words of truth and wisdom. Let us keep down our 
mockery, and try gravely and honestly to look society in the 
face; and we shall most certainly see, that among men and 
women of every grade — from the highest to the lowest — who 
have felt true love for their fellow-creatures both at home and 
in heathendom, and have proved it by efforts for their in- 
struction in the lessons of the Gospel, are to be found some 
of the best patriots, some of the most high-minded men and 
best clergymen, and many of the best daily fire-side models 
of social duty and domestic love. 

The preceding remarks do not apply to the Church of 
England only; but to every other Christian Church, whatso- 
ever may be its name, of which the members believe in the 
promises of the Gospel as the ground of their hopes, and 
take its commands as the rule of their life. While such men 
are doing the good work of Christian love among the hea- 
then, we pray, with all our hearts, that God may speed them 
well — without stopping to inquire into the Covenants they 
may have signed, the Synodal Confessions they may have 
published, or the outward forms of polity they may have 
chosen. A man may surely join in such a prayer without 
forfeiting one iota of his loyalty, or abating one particle of 
his active duties, to his own Church and Country. 

But charity begins at home, it is said, and very truly said. 
Charity will, however, very soon be cold when it is confined 
to one household; and its flame will soon go out if it be not 
fanned by the open air. That man is sure to be a base citizen 
and a surly master, whose charities do not expand beyond his 



FREFATOR Y LETTER. lxxxiii 

own threshold. In that condition he would morally be little 
better than the beasts of the field. It is of the very essence 
of Christian love that it is expansive, and that it gains new 
strength by its social exercise. For sentiments of true love 
are not barren, but have a goodly progeny, which bring back 
to the heart a most abundant recompense. 

There has however appeared in our times another argument 
(alluded to before, p. viii) against missions to the heathen, which 
starts with an hypothesis that some Tribes of men have been 
created only to be destroyed — that when a Race is once sunk 
low in the scale of humanity it is absolutely irrecoverable — and 
that all efforts to raise it to a higher moral grade are a worthless 
w T aste of time, and therefore a mischievous application of our 
labour. I do not stop to ask by what law of faith or reason 
we dare to define the bounds of divine benevolence; and by what 
right we strive to draw within our narrow limitation those 
large religious hopes which animate a good man, who is wil- 
ling to devote his life to a work for which he believes he has 
God's sanction; and who works well because he trusts that 
he shall continue to have God's help. The hypothesis gives 
us a gloomy, cheerless view of our Maker's dealings with His 
creatures. There is darkness enough in the world without our 
hypothetical colouring to make it darker still. The argument, 
when sifted, is but a miserable apology for our own short- 
comings ; and a profane readiness to throw, on the unfathom- 
able decrees of Providence, a blame for evils, which, in obedi- 
ence to His commands and in full trust in His help, it was 
our bounden duty to remedy. But have we done this? 
Nay, have we not — in the case of Africa — fostered and engen- 
dered these evils by most intrepid and cruel deeds of wicked- 
ness — continued and upheld for centuries, without remorse or 
shame? To such an argument — when urged by men with 
little hope, with frigid benevolence, and it may be in selfish 
feincerity — we can reply by an appeal to the conversions 
wrought, with God's help, by the Missionaries to the Islands 



Ixxxiv PREFATORY LETTER. 

of the Pacific. Or we may appeal to more recent instances — 
such, for example, as the goodly Christian fruits produced in 
New Zealand, by the apostolical labours of the faithful, pious, 
and brave Bishop Selwyn. 

But a true-hearted Christian does not need an appeal to 
facts, however much he may rejoice to think of them. The 
book of life is before him. He knows its commands and its 
promises, and he feels its hopes. He knows well that its pro- 
mises embrace the whole human family, and are not bounded 
by latitude or climate. He does not, on that account, give up 
the homely duties of that state in which God has placed him. 
He performs them prudently, loyally, and faithfully. But that 
does not hinder him from honouring those good and brave men 
to whom his Maker has given a stronger frame, a wider vision, 
a firmer will, and an ampler and more glorious line of duty 
than his own. Such men he honours by outward reverence, 
assists by prudent counsel, and encourages by substantial sym- 
pathy. 

Nor can a true-hearted Christian doubt that, in some form 
or other, Providence will bless those labours of love of which 
the high aim is the enduring good of the human family. The 
progress of national civilization, under all conditions, is of very 
slow growth: but this fact of history, when well interpreted, 
may become an indirect encouragement, and tell a good man, 
like Livingstone, not to lose heart because so little seeming 
progress is made during the course of a single life. Spite of 
the little that has yet been done, he can look forward with 
good hope to future days, when millions of civilized men may 
flourish in Christian freedom and happiness on the hills that 
skirt the Kalahari desert, and in that earthly paradise which 
he found near the banks of the Zambesi. 

The imaginative and philosophical idolaters of ancient Greece 
worshipped the heroes who had figured in their old traditions 
as the benefactors of their country. And if we are to trust 
that noble English teacher, who has sometimes been called 



PREFATORY LETTER. Ixxxv 

the prophet of inductive science, there was a wisdom lurk- 
ing under the wild visions of those Ancients, which shadowed 
forth some higher truths than had then been plainly told — 
and were to the old world, as the outstretched hands of a blind 
man, feeling his way towards a true resting-place, but with 
no light to help him. They tell us in a fable, that fire brought 
down by stealth from heaven could give life to a statue of 
cold clay. We can take up the figure, no longer entangled 
in a fable, and declare its accomplishment in that heavenly 
fire which warms the Christian heart, and that holy light 
which irradiates the Christian eye. The power of God — which 
brooding over the dead matter of the created world, brought 
out of it law, and order, and all living things, and breathed 
into man a living soul — has not lost its energy. It was the 
Spirit of the everlasting God who knows no change; who 
has dealt kindly by His faithful people, and will deal kindly 
still; who knows how to help His faithful servant, and will 
help him ; and by His renovating power will, in His own 
time, give to a good man a mighty strength to lift up the poor 
heathen from the earth, to warm his cold frozen heart, and to 
bring his inner being into that likeness of God in which man 
was created. 

Such is the faith and hope, and such the commission of 
Livingstone, and of other good men — too many to tell — who 
are gone to teach the truth to the millions of our fellow-crea- 
tures who are scattered over the earth. These men are a por- 
tion of the sinews of our national strength. For they help to 
keep alive amongst us the true practical acceptance of our re- 
ligion. The men of no nation can be maintained in honour 
and happiness without a recognition of religious principle. 
Heathens have taught this lesson ; and I once heard it af- 
firmed by one of the greatest philosophers in France, who, at 
the time he uttered this great moral truth, was himself an 
unbeliever in the religion of Christ. But I write not to un- 
believers. It is not on mere grounds of expediency, but to 



lxxxvi PREFATORY LETTER. 

enforce the everlasting truth of God, that Christianity is com- 
mended to the whole world. At the same time, no nation can 
hope for long prosperity which practically denies its Chris- 
tianity. Such a nation is not an instrument in the hand of God 
fit to work out the holy purposes of His Providence. Men 
like Livingstone are among the strong fibres that make 
the complicated textile fabric of our national strength. We 
greeted him with glad hearts while he was here — we pray 
that his God and Saviour may long bless his labours now 
that he is far away : and we trust that in long distant ages 
he may live in the grateful memory of Christian Africa — 
not in fabulous figures, like the old imaginative traditions of 
heathen Greece, but in homely, honest, historic truth — as a 
brave good man who came among them in their old days of 
darkness; instructed them, like a Father, in the pleasant ways 
of light and gentleness and truth ; and taught them to lift up 
their hearts towards a redeeming God. 

In such a prayer as this, my dear Sir, I know that you 
will join me. Again asking your forgiveness for my long 
delay, 

I remain, in all good-will, 

Very faithfully yours, 

ADAM SEDGWICK. 

To the Rev. William Monk, 
Aubrey Villa, Cambridge. 



POSTSCRIPT. 

Trinity College, 
May 17, 1858. 

Your work, I am told, is ready for publication ; and very 
nearly the whole of the previous letter is now in type. I 
must therefore — especially after the long and unhappy delay to 
which I have before alluded (p.lxxiv.) — make this Postscript 
as short as I can. From the first I intended to confine my 
letter chiefly to the Author's account of the native Africans, 
and to his past labours and future prospects as a benevolent 
Missionary — using that word in his own large sense ; so as 
to include under it every man who is willing personally to 
devote himself to the improvement of the physical and moral 
condition of the Natives. The object of this Postscript is to 
give a synopsis of the physical and scientific information with 
which this admirable volume abounds. It greatly wants an 
Index; for it is written inartificialiy, and most important facts 
are so scattered through the journal, that when partly for- 
gotten they are not easily referred to. Such an Index need 
not be long. 

1. The Vegetable Kingdom. Under this head may be here- 
included the forest-trees, fruit-trees, cereals, plants of econo- 
mical and medicinal use, grasses, flowers, fruits, &c. There is 
a very great mass of popular information under these heads. 
The facts are stated without any affectation of scientific dis- 
play, and are full of excellent suggestions — many of which 
will, no doubt, be laboriously followed out by future scientific 
travellers. 

2. Meteorology and Climate. These subjects are very 
nearly allied to those included under the preceding head. 
Under this head are here included many facts respecting 
periodical winds ; tropical rains ; ranges of thermometrical 
temperature; hygrometrical conditions and malaria. Under 



lxxxviii POSTSCRIPT. 

this head I may, for sake of brevity, include the most im- 
portant discovery of wide regions in which the climate of 
South Africa is delightful to the senses, and is in a high degree 
favourable to human life. Had the author laid no other fact 
but this before us, his great labours would have been well 
bestowed. 

3. The Animal Kingdom. I here compress together 
several subjects that should more properly appear under dis- 
tinct heads of enumeration. (1) The description of the red, 
white, and black ants. — The experiments on the insects which 
distil water: though left imperfect they are interesting and 
suggestive. — The accounts of the destructive Tsetse, and of 
other noxious animals of a low order. (2) The accounts of 
the habits and instincts of the Reptiles on the Upper Zam- 
besi. (3) The descriptions of Birds — Of the ostrich, the 
honey-guide, and of the red-beaked hornbill ; of the guard-birds 
of the buffalo and the rhinoceros; of the songs of tropical 
birds, &c. (4) The graphic descriptions of the habits, in- 
stincts, and modes of attack and defence, of the larger Mam- 
mals; with the addition of some new species. All the above 
subjects are excellently touched on; and the chief thing the 
reader wants is an Index that may help him to refresh his 
remembrance of many instructive and delightful pages in the 
large volume. 

4. Hydrography of South Africa. On this subject the 
Author has given very important additions to all our previous 
knowledge — not merely in his personal examination of the 
course of the Zambesi to the sea ; but in his approximation to 
the range of its ramifications, as well as of its principal tribu- 
tary rivers. Nor does his information end here. He has 
improved the hydrography of Angola ; and has laid down the 
position of the extreme southern branches of the Congo or 
Zaire. Combining this knowledge with his account of the 
physical geography of South Africa, we can explain some great 
changes which have taken place in the hydrography of the 
country within a comparatively recent period : and in like 
manner we can explain the migrations of some of the larger 
mammals through the continent. If, for example, the hippo- 



POSTSCRIPT. ]xxxix 

potamus of South Africa bo of the same species with the hip- 
popotamus of the Nile, how did that animal migrate from 
North Africa to South, or from South Africa to North? The 
old maps made such a migration almost impossible. There is 
now, perhaps, no difficulty in our reply. The animal might 
have found its way through the lakes and swamps of the great 
table-land north of the Zambesi; and its tracks were seen by 
Livingstone not far from the water-shed. 

5. Physical Geography. Strictly speaking, this cannot be 
separated from the hydrography of the continent. The two 
are connected as cause and consequence. But discovery sel- 
dom follows the chronological order of nature : for we are 
compelled to ascend from consequence to cause. It has long 
been known to geographers that South Africa was bounded by 
chains of mountains. One chain runs parallel to its western 
coast and stretches northward far beyond the limits of our 
Author's travels. In like manner the southern end of the 
continent is bounded by mountains of considerable elevation. 
And chains of mountains extend, almost continuously, parallel 
to its eastern coast, and run to latitudes many degrees North 
of the Zambesi. In the centre of South Africa is a great 
plain — the Kalahari desert. Again, it was inferred, though 
upon imperfect evidence, that high land extended across the 
continent, somewhere to the North of the great river ; and 
this high land appeared to connect the eastern and western 
chains of South Africa. But the physical nature of this high 
table-land was often hypothetically misrepresented in the old 
maps of Africa. 

There were also reasons to believe that the low central por- 
tions of South Africa — bounded by the high regions above 
noticed — were once occupied by a great lake, which had its 
probable issue somewhere about the latitude of the Orange 
river. All the known geographical facts were admirably put 
together, and the probable consequences drawn from them in 
1852 by Sir R. I. Murchison, in his address to the Geographical 
Society. Probable consequences and facts are not necessarily 
in accordance ; but physical geographers have been delighted 
to find that, in this instance, the logic had been good. For 



xc POSTSCRIPT. 

Livingstone has proved, by numerous facts, that there once was 
a vast lake in the central parts of South Africa ; which has left 
its traces by deposits of calcareous tufa, some of which run 
far up the present river-courses, and point out the high levels 
at which the old central lake once stood. Nor is this all his 
evidence. He has told us that he has found in the earth-heaps, 
thrown out by the burrowing animals of the desert, certain 
species of shells identical with the fresh-water shells of the 
Lake Ngami. Hence he infers that the old central lake was of 
fresh water ; and that the present Lake Ngami is nothing but 
a great pool left in one of the lower hollows of the central 
region, when its great body of waters, from some cause or other, 
drained off and disappeared 1 . 

But how had the central waters disappeared ? Not by mere 
evaporation and absorption. For if so, we might have expected 
more traces of saliferous deposits than we meet with in the 
central plain of South Africa. It was almost certain- — before 
we had been taught by Livingstone — that the brim, which held 
the great central lake, must, somewhere or other, have been 
broken through, so as to let off the waters to a lower level. 

We may now affirm that Livingstone has explained this 
difficulty. The great break of continuity, among the rocks 
below the Victoria Falls, certainly let off the waters to a lower 
level ; and a convulsion capable of causing that enormously 
deep and continuous chasm (above described, supra, p. xlvi.) 
may well have broken through the north-eastern barrier by 
which the waters of the Zambesi were dammed back into the 
great central lake. I believe this to be the true explanation of 
the geographical fact; and that, by placing the evidence before 
us, he has thrown a good and new light upon the physical geo- 

1 We are not without an example of this kind in England, of course on 
a pigmy scale ; but no worse, for comparison, on that account. There was 
once a lake at Bovey Tracey in Devonshire, which for many ages was fed 
by the rivulets which descended from the neighbouring granitic hills of 
Dartmoor. Its waters overflowed, and found their way to the sea, but not 
by the channels through which they now flow down to Teignmouth. In 
course of time the lake was partially filled up : and at length came an 
earthquake and disruption of the strata; and then the rivulets began to 
drain off, and move along their present channels. 



POSTSCRIPT. xci 

graphy of all the country South of the great river. Something 
more is, however, required on a question of such interest. 

When was the great chasm formed? There seems to be 
no better way of gaining an approximate answer to this ques- 
tion than by learning the nature of the shells which inhabited 
the central lake when the calcareous tufa was formed ; but on 
this point we have little information in the Missionary Travels. 

The great chasm does not extend above the falls. What are 
the rocks in the river-bed above the falls ? How far do the 
rocks extend towards the great swampy plain down which the 
Zambesi descends to Kalai? Are there any traces of the cal- 
careous tufa to be seen on the swelling ground which skirts 
the river near Kalai? These questions will, we trust, be well 
examined by the gentlemen of the next expedition up the 
Zambesi. 

6. Geology. On this subject I shall be very short, and I should 
be so though time were less pressing than it is. For no geolo- 
gist will be content with second-hand opinions ; and a reader 
who knows little of geology would not thank me for dry details 
on a subject in which he takes no interest. We have some valu- 
able published details respecting the geology of the Cape and 
the neighbouring country. Some parts of the country are cer- 
tainly palaeozoic ; and other parts may be of the old secondary 
period. As to the great eastern and western coast-chains, 
we believe that several parts of them are metamorphic and 
palaeozoic; but of their structural and stratigraphical details 
we know at present very little. 

As a mere matter of opinion, founded only on lame English 
analogies, I should expect that, when its fossils are explored, the 
coal-field near Tete will turn out to be of a true palaeozoic or an 
old mesozoic period. 

The bearings of the eastern and western chains of South 
Africa are so nearly North and South, that if there were any 
true physical foundation for the hypothesis (first advanced by 
the illustrious Humboldt and afterwards adopted by Sir R. I. 
Murchison) that such North and South bearings are an indica- 
tion that the rocks are auriferous — then we ought assuredly to 
expect auriferous deposits in various portions of these great 



xcii POSTSCRIPT. 

chains. North of Tete there are gold washings; and the range 
of the strata seems there to be nearly North and South. At 
present I have no faith whatever in the above hypothesis; though 
it led to one happy anticipation. But erroneous hypotheses 
have sometimes done the same before. What we seem to know is — 
that gold is chiefly found among palaeozoic rocks of a quartzose 
type. And if gold be found, in detached nodules, or nuggets, 
among such rocks, it must be itself of the palaeozoic age. Some 
of the great physical agencies of the earth are meridional ; and 
these agencies may possibly — and in a way we do not compre- 
hend — have influenced the deposit of metals on certain lines of 
bearing. It would therefore be very foolish to reject an hypothe- 
sis absolutely, because we do not comprehend the reasons of it. 
So long as our hypothesis represents known facts, it cannot do 
much mischief; though even in such a case it may happen to be 
the means of too much narrowing our inquiries. Thus, I think, 
it would be an hypothetical misdirection to say, that a quartzose 
palaeozoic rock cannot be auriferous, because its strike is not 
nearly north and south. Experience must settle this point. 

The geological age of the vast overlying mass of red shale, 
sandstone, and red conglomerate — which forms a great broad 
table-land across the continent, and extends towards the North 
through many degrees of latitude — is of primary importance to 
the illustration of the old physical history of what now com- 
poses Southern Africa. A few trunks of silicified trees are 
mentioned as belonging to this great deposit. One of them is 
allied to araucaria. But the fossils, so far as I have heard, have 
settled nothing. For fossil trees allied to araucaria are found 
among primary, secondary and tertiary rocks. Judging again, 
on mere vague analogy, I should expect that the vast deposit 
would turn out to be of an old mesozoic, or of a permian age. 

Should these conjectures, to which, however, I attach no 
value, turn out an approximation to the truth, South Africa 
will then, like Australia, be denuded of the greater part of 
those grand European and British deposits we call mesozoic. 
The same may be said of South America; and thus we may 
seem to be almost shutting out from the Southern hemisphere 
the noble monuments of past time which decorate the middle 



POSTSCRIPT. xciii 

period of the earth's history. Finally, Dr Livingstone alludes 
to some coast-deposits with shells like those now inhabiting the 
sea. If the shells form groups identical with those now living, 
we should call the deposits containing them "raised beaches." 
But to determine their exact age, would require long and very 
nice work. 

All thanks and honour to the Author for what he has told 
us. He has done wonders when we consider his many inter- 
ruptions ; his periods of exhaustion ; his rough untaught com- 
panions who required his constant care; his enormous labours; 
his daily observations with the sextant ; his hourly remarks 
recorded in his journal ; his simple love of truth that allows 
him not to swell his narrative with hypotheses ; his exertions 
of medical skill in all times of need ; his life of purity, and his 
daily lessons of love to those who were around him. They 
loved him and would have died for him; being strongly af- 
fected by that kind of instinctive sympathy by which even a 
poor untaught savage is drawn towards one who is brave, 
and kind, and good 1 . 

: About the time he left England a pamphlet was printed hy Dr 
Livingstone on the languages spoken by the Natives of South Africa. I 
have not yet had time to read this work with care; and its matter is foreign 
to the more immediate objects of this letter. Since this Postscript was 
in type, I have learnt that the Publisher (Mr Murray) has now sup- 
plied the Missionary Travels in South Africa with a very good Index, for 
which every reader will be grateful. 



LECTURE I 



Delivered before the University of Cambridge, in the 
Senate-House, on Friday, 4th December, 1857. Hr 
Philpott, Master of St Catharine's College, Vice- 
Chancellor, in the chair. The building was crowded 
to excess with all ranks of the University and their 
friends. The reception was so enthusiastic that lite- 
rally there were volley after volley of cheers. The 
Vice-Chancellor introduced Dr Livingstone to the 
meeting, who spoke nearly as follows: — 

WHEN I went to Africa about seventeen years ago I 
resolved to acquire an accurate knowledge of the 
native tongues ; and as I continued, while there, to speak 
generally in the African languages, the result is that I am 
not now very fluent in my own; but if you will excuse my 
imperfections under that head, I will endeavour to give 
you as clear an idea of Africa as I can. If you look at 
the map of Africa you will discover the shortness of the 
coast-line, which is in consequence of the absence of deep 
indentations of the sea. This is one reason why the in- 
terior of Africa has remained so long unknown to the rest 
of the world. Another reason is the unhealthiness of the 
coast, which seems to have reacted upon the disposition 
of the people, for they are very unkindly, and opposed to 



2 LECTURE I. 

Europeans passing through their country. In the southern 
part of Africa lies the great Kalahari desert 1 , not so called 
as being a mere sandy plain, devoid of vegetation : such a 
desert I never saw until I got between Suez and Cairo. 
Kalahari is called a desert because it contains no streams, 
and water is obtained only from deep wells. The reason 
why so little rain falls on this extensive plain, is, because 
the winds prevailing over the greater part of the interior 
country are easterly, with a little southing. The moisture 
taken up by the atmosphere from the Indian Ocean is 
deposited on the eastern hilly slope; and when the mov- 
ing mass of air reaches its greatest elevation, it is then 
on the verge of the great valley, or, as in the case of the 
Kalahari, the great heated inland plains there meeting 
with the rarefied air of that hot, dry surface, the ascend- 
ing heat gives it greater capacity for retaining all its re- 
maining humidity, and few showers can be given to the 
middle and western lands in consequence of the increased 
hygrometric power. (See Travels, p. 95.) The people 
living there, not knowing the physical reasons why they 
have so little rain, are in the habit of sending to the 
mountains on the east for rain-makers, in whose power of 
making rain they have a firm belief 2 . They say the 

1 For an account of this desert, see Appendix, page 64. 

2 E.ain-makers are a numerous race in Southern Africa; and rain- 
making is an inveterate prejudice in the minds of large numbers of 
people. At pages 10 — 25 of the book of Travels is given an amusing, yet 
pathetic, account of this quackery among the Bakwains. These people 
try to help themselves to rain by a variety of preparations, such as char- 



OSI. 



RAIN-MAKING. 3 

people in those mountains have plenty of rain, and there- 
fore must possess a medicine for making it. This faith 
in rain-making is a remarkable feature in the people in 
the country, and they have a good deal to say in favour of 
it. If you say you do not believe that these medicines 
have any power upon the clouds, they reply that that is 
just the way people talk about what they do not under- 
stand. They take a bulb, pound it, and administer an 
infusion of it to a sheep: in a short time the sheep dies 
in convulsions, and then they ask, Has not the medicine 
power \ I do not think our friends of the homoeopathic 
"persuasion" have much more to say than that. The 
common argument known to all those tribes is this — 
" God loves you white men better than us: He made you 
first, and did not make us pretty like you : He made us 
afterwards, and does not love us as He loves you. He 
gave you clothing, and horses and waggons, and guns 
and powder, and that Book, which you are always talking 

coal made of burnt bats, jackals' livers, baboons' and lions' hearts, ser- 
pents' skins and vertebrce, in addition to the means mentioned above. 
They take a philosophical view of the question, and say that they do not 
pretend to make the rain themselves, but that God Himself makes it 
in answer to their prayers, and as a consequence of their preparations. 
They pray by means of their medicines, which act makes the rain theirs. 
A practice somewhat similar exists among the medicine men of the 
North-American Indians. It is somewhat striking that the Bakwains 
were so long afflicted with drought during Dr Livingstone's residence 
among them. They attributed this partly to his wizard powers, and 
partly to the presence of the Bible ; regarding him with a suspicion cor- 
responding with this belief. The dialogue between the medical doctor 
and the rain-doctor is highly entertaining, and shews great acuteness on 
the part of the untutored savage. 

9 



4 LECTURE I. 

about. He gave us only two things — cattle and a know- 
ledge of certain medicines by which we can make rain. 
We do not despise the things that you have; we only 
wish that we had them too; we do not despise that Book 
of yours, although we do not understand it : so you ought 
not to despise our knowledge of rain-making, although 
you do not understand it." You cannot convince them 
that they have no power to make rain. As it is with the 
homoeopathist, so it is with the rain-maker — you might 
argue your tongue out of joint, and would convince 
neither. 

I went into that country for the purpose of teach- 
ing the doctrines of our holy religion, and settled 
with the tribes on the border of the Kalahari desert. 
These tribes were those of the Bakwains, Bushmen and 
Bakalahari. Sechele 1 is the chief of the former. On 

1 This interesting man is the son of the Bakwain Chief, Mochoasele. 
He was uniformly kind to the Livingstones, sending them food con- 
stantly during their stay with him at Shokuane, his place of residence, 
and becoming our traveller's guide in 1850, when going to visit Sebi- 
tuane. As a child his life was spared by Sebituane when attacking the 
Bakwains, who gave him his father's chieftainship. He married the 
daughters of three of his under-chiefs, and afterwards became Dr Living- 
stone's Sergius Paulus, or first influential Christian convert. He had 
family prayers in his house, and became a missionary to his own people, 
sending his children to Mr Moffat, at Kuruman, to be instructed "in 
all the knowledge of the white man." He learnt to read with great 
diligence, and succeeded well, getting quite fat through becoming a 
student instead of a hunter. The Bible was his constant study, he being 
particularly fond of Isaiah's book of prophecy. Once he said, in refer- 
ence to St Paul, " He was a fine fellow, that Paul." 

The Boers hate him for his resolute independence, and love of the 



THE FUTURE STATE. 5 

the occasion of the first religious service held, he asked 
me if he could put some questions on the subject of 
Christianity, since such was the custom of their country 
when any new subject was introduced to their notice. 
I said, "By all means." He then inquired "If my 
forefathers knew of a future judgment V I said, " Yes;" 
and began to describe the scene of the great white 
throne, and Him who should sit on it, from whose face 
the heavens shall flee away, and be no more seen ; 
interrupting he said, " You startle me, these words make 
all my bones to shake, I have no more strength in me. 
You have been talking about a future judgment, and 
many terrible things, of which we know nothing," repeat- 
ing, "Did your forefathers know of these things V I again 
replied in the affirmative. The chief said, " All my fore- 
fathers have passed away into darkness, without knowing 
anything of what was to befall them ; how is it that your 
forefathers, knowing all these things, did not send word 
to my forefathers sooner?" This was rather a poser; but 
I explained the geographical difficulties, and said it was 
only after we had begun to send the knowledge of Christ 
to Cape Colony and other parts of the country, to which 
we had access, that we came to them ; that it was their 
duty to receive what Europeans had now obtained the 
power to offer them ; and that the time would come when 
the whole world would receive the knowledge of Christ, 

English. He values everything European, and desires to trade with 
white men. Some further details are found in the Lectuies about him. 

9—2 



6 LECTURE I. 

because Christ had promised that all the earth should be 
covered with a knowledge of Himself. The chief pointed 
to the Kalahari desert, and said, " Will you ever get 
beyond that with your Gospel? We, who are more 
accustomed to thirst than you are, cannot cross that 
desert ; how can you ? " I stated my belief in the pro- 
mise of Christ ; and in a few years afterwards that chief 
was the man who enabled me to cross that desert ; and 
not only so, but he himself preached the Gospel to tribes 
beyond it. In some years, more rain than usual falls in 
the desert, and then there is a large crop of water-melons. 
When this occurred, the desert might be crossed : in 
1852, a gentleman crossed it, and his oxen existed on 
the fluid contained in the melons for twenty-two days. 
In crossing the desert, different sorts of country are met 
with ; up to 20th south latitude, there is a comparatively 
dry and arid country, and you might travel for four days, 
as I have done, without a single drop of water for the 
oxen. Water for the travellers themselves was always 
carried in the waggons, the usual mode of travelling south 
of the 20th degree of latitude being by ox- waggon. For 
four days, upon several occasions, we had not a drop of 
water for the oxen ; but beyond 20th south latitude, going 
to the north, we travelled to Loanda, 1,500 miles, with- 
out carrying water for a single day. The country in the 
southern part of Africa is a kind of oblong basin, stretching 
north and south, bounded on all sides by old schist rocks. 
The waters of this central basin find an exit through 



OBJECTS IN VISITING THE INTERIOR. 7 

a fissure into the river Zambesi, flowing to the east, the 
basin itself being covered with a layer of calcareous tufa. 
My object in going into the country south of the desert 
was to instruct the natives in a knowledge of Christianity, 
but many circumstances prevented my living amongst 
them more than seven years, amongst which were consider- 
ations arising out of the slave system carried on by the 
Dutch Boers. I resolved to go into the country beyond, 
and soon found that, for the purposes of commerce, it 
was necessary to have a path to the sea. I might have 
gone on instructing the natives in religion, but as civi- 
lization and Christianity must go on together, I was 
obliged to find a path to the sea, in order that I should 
not sink to the level of the natives 1 . The chief 2 was 

1 After leaving Lake Ngami, Dr Livingstone took his family back 
to the Cape, and then set out on his first great journey. He visited 
Sebituane, at whose death he recommenced his exploring labours. 
During the course of these, he floundered through the marshy country 
south of Linyanti, and came so unexpectedly upon Secheletu, that the 
people said "he dropped from the clouds, riding on a hippopotamus." 

2 This is Secheletu, chief of the Makololo, being the son of Sebituane. 
When Dr Livingstone first knew him he was eighteen years old, being 
of a coffee and milk colour. He became chief through the resignation 
and at the desire of his sister, Mamochisane, whom Sebituane, at his 
death, had appointed to govern. Secheletu had a rival, 'Mpepe, who, 
while alive, rendered his position somewhat insecure. This 'Mpepe 
attempted to assassinate him as he was escorting our traveller to explore 
the river Chobe, and visiting his possessions. Dr Livingstone uninten- 
tionally prevented this design by stepping between them just as the 
murderer was about to strike the chief down. 

Secheletu behaved so generously towards Dr Livingstone, at all 
times and in so many ways, that the civilized world and Africa are 
deeply indebted to him for contributing so largely towards the opening 
of the interior of that vast continent. He found the escort of twenty- 



8 LECTURE I. 

overjoyed at the suggestion, and furnished me with 
twenty-seven men, and canoes, and provisions, and pre- 
sents for the tribes through whose country we had to 
pass. We might have taken a shorter path to the sea 
than that to the north, and then to the west, by which 
we went ; but along the country by the shorter route, 
there is an insect called the tsetse 1 , whose bite is fatal to 
horses, oxen, and dogs, but not to men or donkeys. — 
You seem to think there is a connexion between the 
two. — The habitat of that insect is along the shorter 
route to the sea. The bite of it is fatal to domestic 
animals, not immediately, but certainly in the course of 
two or three months ; the animal grows leaner and leaner, 

seven men, as here mentioned, for the first, and that of one hundred 
and fourteen men for the second, great journey ; also, ten tusks of ivory 
to help to defray the costs of the former, and thirty for the latter. 

He is a man of enlightened mind, and a peace-maker. When our 
traveller set out from Linyanti on his journey towards the Barotse 
country, he accompanied him with one hundred and sixty attendants. 
During this journey they ate together, dwelt in the same tent, and 
returned to Linyanti after a nine weeks' tour. When Dr Livingstone 
and his party set out for Loanda, he lent his own canoes, and sent 
orders for their maintenance wherever they came in his dominions, and 
gave them a most touching and spirit-stirring reception on their return 
to Linyanti. On this occasion the presents received, story told, and 
greetings given, were of a most satisfactory character. 

To shew the eagerness of Secheletu to trade with the white man, he 
immediately dispatched another party to Loanda, who arrived safely 
there after our traveller's arrival in England. To the latter he gave all 
the ivory in his country, and asked him to bring from England, as well 
as a sugar-mill, ' ' any beautiful thing you may see in your own country." 
He eagerly and confidently awaits our traveller's promised return. 

1 For an account of the tsetse, see Appendix, p. 81. 



WANT OF FOOD. 9 

and gradually dies of emaciation : a horse belonging to 
Gordon Cumming died of a bite five or six months after 
it was bitten. 

On account of this insect, I resolved to go to the 
north, and then westwards to the Portuguese settlement 
of Loanda. Along the course of the river which we 
passed, game was so abundant that there was no diffi- 
culty in supplying the wants of my whole party: an- 
telopes were so tame that they might be shot from the 
canoe. But beyond 14 degrees of south latitude the 
natives had guns, and had themselves destroyed the game, 
so that I and my party had to live on charity. The 
people, however, in that central region were friendly and 
hospitable : but they had nothing but vegetable produc- 
tions : the most abundant was the cassava, which, how- 
ever nice when made into tapioca pudding, resembles in 
its more primitive condition nothing so much as a mess 
of laundress" starch 1 . There was a desire in the various 
villages through which we passed to have intercourse 
with us, and kindness and hospitality were shewn us; 
but when we got near the Portuguese settlement of 
Angola the case was changed, and payment was de- 
manded for every thing 2 . But I had nothing to pay with. 
Now the people had been in the habit of trading with the 

1 For an account of this, see Appendix, p. 79. 

2 This was often a sort of black-mail levied for a right of way, and 
was generally demanded in the shape of " a man, a tusk, an ox, or a 
2run." 



10 LECTURE I. 

slavers, and so they said I might give one of my men in 
payment for what I wanted. When I shewed them that 
I could not do this, they looked upon me as an interloper, 
and I was sometimes in danger of being murdered. 

As we neared the coast, the name of England was re- 
cognized, and we got on with ease. Upon one occasion, 
when I was passing through the parts visited by slave- 
traders, a chief 1 who wished to shew me some kindness 
offered me a slave-girl : upon explaining that I had a 
little girl of my own, whom I should not like my own 
chief to give to a black man, the chief thought I was 
displeased with the size of the girl, and sent me one a 
head taller. By this and other means I convinced my 
men of my opposition to the principle of slavery; and 
when we arrived at Loanda I took them on board a 
British vessel, where I took a pride in shewing them that 
those countrymen of mine and those guns were there for 
the purpose of putting down the slave-trade. They were 
convinced from what they saw of the honesty of English- 
men's intentions ; and the hearty reception they met with 

1 This was Shinte, or Kabombo, a Balonda chief. He gave our 
traveller a grand reception, and treated him kindly. The kidnapping of 
children and others by night, to sell for slaves, was an unhappy practice 
of his. 

Dr Livingstone mentions five other Balonda chiefs, with four of 
whom he had intercourse. Matiamvo, the paramount chief of all the 
Balonda tribes, he did not visit, as he resides too far away to the North. 
Those whom he saw were Manenko and Nyamoana, two female chiefs ; 
also Masiko and Kawawa, two other chieftains. Interesting notices of 
these are scattered through the book, especially of Shinte and Manenko, 
who are related as uncle and niece. 



ARRIVAL AT WANDA. 11 

from the sailors made them say to me, " We see they are 
your countrymen, for they have hearts like you." On 
the journey, the men had always looked forward to reach- 
ing the coast: they had seen Manchester prints and 
other articles imported therefrom, and they could not 
believe they were made by mortal hands. On reaching 
the sea, they thought that they had come to the end of 
the world. They said, " We marched along with our 
father, thinking the world was a large plain without 
limit; but all at once the land said 'I am finished, 
there is no more of me ;' " and they called themselves 
the true old men — the true ancients — having gone to 
the end of the world. On reaching Loanda, they com- 
menced trading in firewood, and also engaged them- 
selves at sixpence a day in unloading coals, brought by a 
steamer for the supply of the cruiser lying there to watch 
the slave-vessels. On their return, they told their people 
" we worked for a whole moon, carrying away the stones 
that burn." By the time they were ready to go back to 
their own country, each had secured a large bundle of 
goods. On the way back, however, fever detained them, 
and their goods were all gone, leaving them on their 
return home, as poor as when they started 1 . 

1 These men behaved well to our traveller, and shewed much sim- 
plicity and shrewdness both in their conduct and remarks. On one or 
two trying occasions they behaved with real courage. They carried 
home with them seeds, plants, pigeons, &c, not there to be found. We 
cannot but be struck with the unity of the human race, as asserted in 
Scripture, by seeing it from independent quarters in oneness of thought, 
feeling, desire, and affection, all the world over, despite other differences. 



12 LECTURE I. 

I had gone towards the coast for the purpose of finding 
a direct path to the sea, but on going through the country 
we found forests so dense that the sun had not much in- 
fluence on the ground, which was covered with yellow 
mosses, and all the trees with white lichens. Amongst 
these forests were little streams, each having its source in 
a bog ; in fact nearly all the rivers in that country com- 
mence in bogs. Finding it impossible to travel here in a 
wheel conveyance, I left my waggon behind, and I believe 
it is standing in perfect safety, where I last saw it, at the 

These men were genuine Africans, chiefly Makalolo, with a mixture of 
several other tribes. The ships on board which our traveller took them 
were her Majesty's cruisers, Pluto and Philomel. Here they were de- 
lighted with their reception, and all they saw. The cannons for "putting 
down the slave-trade with " especially delighted them. The officers won 
their affections by their cordiality, and the sailors by like kindness and by 
sharing their bread and beef with them. Respecting the ships they said, 
"This is not a canoe at all ; it is a town." They looked on the decks 
and rigging as being "a town upon town." The party left Loanda on 
the return journey on the 20th September, 1854. The account they gave 
of themselves, when arrived in their own country, was singularly amusing. 
"We are the true ancients, who can tell wonderful things." Pitsane, 
the head-man, related all they had seen, heard, and felt ; and this ac- 
count did not lose in the telling. At Linyanti, all had a grand recep- 
tion ; Secheletu himself wearing the officers' uniform sent him by the 
Portuguese authorities at Loanda, while the men appeared in dashing 
white dresses and red caps, calling themselves our traveller's "braves," 
and trying to walk like Portuguese soldiers. They spoke of the wonder- 
ful things they had met with, adding as a climax, "that they had 
finished the whole world, and had turned only when there was no more 
land." One glib old gentleman asked, " Then you reached Ma-Pobert 
(Mrs Livingstone)?" They were obliged to confess "that she lived 
a little beyond the world." (Travels, p. 501.) 

An account of the Doctor's other travelling companions will be found 
at p. 14. 



GREAT CENTRAL PLATE A U. 1 3 

present moment. The only other means of conveyance 
we had was ox-back, by no means a comfortable mode of 
travelling. I therefore came back to discover another 
route to the coast by means of the river Zambesi 1 . 

The same system of inundation that distinguishes the 
Nile, is also effected by this river, and the valley of the 
Barotse is exceedingly like the valley of the Nile between 
Cairo and Alexandria. The inundations of the Zambesi, 
however, cause no muddy sediment like those of the Nile, 
and, only that there are no snow-mountains, would convey 
the impression that the inundations were the result of 
the melting of snow from adjoining hills. The face of 
the country presents no such features, but elevated plains, 
so level that rain-water stands for months together upon 
them. The water does not flow off, but gradually soaks 
into the soil, and then oozes out in bogs, in which all the 
rivers take their rise. They have two rainy seasons in 
the year, and consequently two periods of inundation. 
The reason why the water remains so clear is this ; the 
country is covered by such a mass of vegetation that the 
water flows over the grass, &c, without disturbing the 
soil beneath. 

There is a large central district containing a large 
lake formed by the course of the Zambesi, to explore 
which would be well worthy of the attention of any in- 
dividual wishing to distinguish himself. 

Having got down amongst the people in the middle 

1 For an account of this river see Appendix, p. 67. 



14 LECTURE I. 

of the country, and having made known to my friend the 
chief my desire to have a path for civilization and com- 
merce on the east, he again furnished me with means to 
pursue my researches eastward ; and, to shew how disposed 
the natives were to aid me in my expedition, I had 114 
men to accompany me to the east, whilst those who had 
travelled to the west with me only amounted to 27 l . 



1 There is something really affecting in the manner how this wonderful 
man attached these savages to himself. It must be remembered, too, 
that the Makololo are justly regarded with dread by their neighbours as 
incurable marauders. At any rate this spectacle shews what kindness, 
tact and firmness will do. His service is now so popular, that he gets 
one hundred and fourteen volunteers to accompany him in his second 
journey. These, like the others, belong to different tribes. On several 
occasions, " when before the enemy," they behaved with temper and 
courage. Their general conduct was good, though there were some 
black sheep among them. One hundred and thirteen of these are now 
awaiting our traveller's return at Tete\ The Portuguese commandant 
there, Major Sicard, gave them land to till, food, clothing, and permis- 
sion to hunt elephants. He writes to England to say that they killed 
four in two months. 

The Doctor tried to bring to England one remarkable man, Sekwebu, 
his interpreter and chief guide, who had been of great service during the 
journey from Linyanti to Tete. Of him we must sorrowfully say, "One 
is not." His loss must be severe and painful to our traveller. He knew 
the Zambesi well, as also the dialects spoken on its banks. On 
arriving at Quillimane, and on attempting to board the Frolic, the sea 
ran mountains high. Poor Sekwebu in terror asked, "Is this the way 
you go ? Is this the way you go ? " He became a favourite on board, 
but was bewildered with the novelty of every thing. He said, "People 
are very agreeable," but "what a strange country is this, all water 
together ! " Now comes the climax. When off Mauritius, a steamer ap- 
pi-oaches. This must be fairy land — see that monster. These white men 
surely are gods or demons. His senses reel — insanity seizes his brain. 
He tries to spear a sailor — jumps overboard — pulls himself down by the 
chains, and Sekwebu in this life is seen no more ! 



AFRICA N HONESTY. 1 $ 

I carried with me thirty tusks of ivory ; and, on leaving 
my waggon to set forth on my journey, two warriors of 
the country offered a heifer a-piece to the man who 
should slay any one who molested it. Having proceeded 
about a hundred miles, I found myself short of ammuni- 
tion, and despatched an emissary back to the chief to 
procure more percussion caps from a box I had in my 
waggon. Not understanding the lock, the chief took a 
hatchet and split the lid open, to get what was wanted ; 
and notwithstanding the insecure state in which it re- 
mained, I found, on returning two years after, that its 
contents were precisely as I left them. Such honesty 
is rare even in civilised Christian England, as I know 
from experience ; for I sent a box of fossils to Dr Buck- 
land, which, after arriving safely in England, was stolen 
from some railway, being probably mistaken for plate. 

I could not make my friend the chief understand that 
I was poor : I had a quantity of sugar, and while it lasted 
the chief would favour me with his company to coffee ; 
when it was gone, I told the chief how it was produced 
from the cane, which grew in central Africa, but as they 
had no means of extracting the saccharine matter, he 
requested me to procure a sugar-mill. When I told him 
I was poor, the chief then informed me that all the ivory 
in the country was at my disposal, and he accordingly 
loaded me with tusks, ten of which on arriving at the 
coast I spent in purchasing clothing for my followers ; the 
rest were left at Quillimane, that the impression should 



16 LECTURE I. 

not be produced in the country that they had been stolen 
in case of my non-return. 

Englishmen are very apt to form their opinion of 
Africans from the elegant figures in tobacconists 1 shops : 
I scarcely think such are fair specimens of the African. 
I think at the same time, that the African women would 
be much handsomer than they are if they would only let 
themselves alone: though unfortunately that is a failing 
by no means peculiar to African ladies ; but they are, 
by nature, not particularly goodlooking, and seem to 
take all the pains they can to make themselves worse. 
The people of one tribe knock out all their upper front 
teeth, and when they laugh are perfectly hideous. An- 
other tribe of the Londa country file all their front 
teeth to a point, like cats 1 teeth, and when they grin 
put one in mind of alligators: many of the women 
are comely, but spoil their beauty by such unnatural 
means. Another tribe has a custom of piercing the 
cartilage of the nose, and inserting a bit of reed, which 
spreads it out, and makes them very disagreeable looking : 
others tie their hair, or rather wool, into basket-work, 
resembling the tonsorial decorations of the ancient 
Egyptians; others, again, dress their hair with a hoop 
around it, so as to resemble the gloria round the head 
of the Virgin ; rather a different application of the hoop 
to that of English ladies l ! 

1 The Batoka tribes, on the Zambesi, knock out their upper front 
teeth, in order that they may, as they say, "look like oxen." They 



NATIVE RELIGION. 17 

The people of central Africa have religious ideas 
stronger than those of the Caffres and other southern 
nations, who talk much of God but pray seldom. They 
pray to departed relatives, by whom they imagine ill- 
nesses are sent to punish them for any neglect on their 
part. Evidences of the Portuguese Jesuit missionary 
operations are still extant, and are carefully preserved by 
the natives: one tribe can all read and write, which 
is ascribable to the teaching of the Jesuits: their only 
books are, however, histories of saints, and miracles 
effected by the parings of saintly toe-nails, and such- 
like nonsense: but, surely, if such an impression has 
once been produced, it might be hoped that the efforts 
of Protestant missionaries, who would leave the Bible 
with these poor people, would not be less abiding. 

In a commercial point of view communication with 
this country is desirable. Angola is wonderfully fertile, 

pronounce those who keep their teeth to "look like zebras." Surely 
this is some vestige of the animal worship of Egypt. The members of 
the Babimpe tribe pull out both their upper and lower front teeth, as a 
distinction. Sheakonda's people, and those on the Tambra, file their 
teeth to a point ; as also do the Chiboque, a hostile tribe on the borders 
of Angola. This, too, is the practice of the Bashinge ; these people 
flatten their noses by inserting bits of reed, or stick, into the septum. 
The Balonda gentlemen so load their legs with copper rings, that they 
are obliged to walk in a straggling way, the weight being a serious hin- 
drance to walking. A man seeing our traveller smile at another with 
no rings, imitating his betters as though he wore them, said, "That is 
the way in which they shew off their lordship in these parts." It is the 
ladies on the Loajima who wear the hoop round the head. The women 
on the Zambesi and among the Maravi pierce the upper lip, and gra- 
dually enlarge the orifice until they can insert a shell. The lip is thus 
drawn out beyond the perpendicular of the nose. Sekwebu said of them, 
" These women want to make their mouths like those of ducks." 



18 LECTURE L 

producing every kind of tropical plant in rank luxuriance. 
Passing on to the valley of Quango, the stalk of the 
grass was as thick as a quill, and towered above my 
head, although I was mounted on my ox; cotton is 
produced in great abundance, though merely woven 
into common cloth ; bananas and pine-apples grow in 
great luxuriance ; but the people having no maritime 
communication, these advantages are almost lost. The 
country on the other side is not quite so fertile, but in 
addition to indigo, cotton, and sugar-cane, produces a 
fibrous substance, which I am assured is stronger than 
flax 1 . 

The Zambesi has not been thought much of as a 
river by Europeans, not appearing very large at its 
mouth ; but on going up it for about seventy miles, it is 
enormous. The first three hundred miles might be 
navigated without obstacle: then there is a rapid, and 
near it a coal-field of large extent. The elevated sides 
of the basin, which form the most important feature of 
the country, are far different in climate to the country 
nearer the sea, or even the centre. Here the grass is 
short, and the Angola goat, which could not live in the 
centre, had been seen on the east highland by Mr Moffat. 

My desire is to open a path to this district, that civi- 
lization, commerce, and Christianity might find their way 
there. I consider that we made a great mistake, when 
we carried commerce into India, in being ashamed of our 
Christianity ; as a matter of common sense and good 

1 See Appendix, p. 79. 



THE PORTUGUESE. U 

policy, it is always best to appear in one's true character. 
In travelling through Africa, I might have imitated 
certain Portuguese, and have passed for a chief; but 
I never attempted anything of the sort, although endea- 
vouring always to keep to the lessons of cleanliness 
rigidly instilled by my mother long ago ; the consequence 
was that the natives respected me for that quality, though 
remaining dirty themselves. 

I had a pass from the Portuguese consul, and on 
arriving at their settlement, I was asked what I was. I 
said, " A missionary, and a doctor too." They asked, 
" Are you a doctor of medicine?" — " Yes." — "Are you 
not a doctor of mathematics too?" — " No." — "And yet 
you can take longitudes and latitudes." — Then they asked 
me about my moustache ; and I simply said I wore it, 
because men had moustaches to wear, and ladies had 
not. They could not understand either, why a sacer- 
dote should have a wife and four children ; and many 
a joke took place upon that subject. I used to say, "Is 
it not better to have children with than without a wife V 
Englishmen of education alw r ays command respect, with- 
out any adventitious aid. A Portuguese governor left for 
Angola, giving out that he was going to keep a large 
establishment, and taking with him quantities of crock- 
ery, and about five hundred waistcoats; but when he 
arrived in Africa, he made a 4 deaP of them. Educated 
Englishmen seldom descend to that sort of thing. 

A prospect is now before us of opening Africa for 
commerce and the Gospel. Providence has been pre*- 

10 



20 LECTURE I. 

paring the way, for even before I proceeded to the Central 
basin it had been conquered and rendered safe by a chief 
named Sebituane 1 , and the language of the Bechua- 

1 This man, according to Dr Livingstone, is the most remarkable 
African who has lived for many an age. He has been truly called the 
Napoleon of these parts. His interesting biography can be found at 
pages 84 — 90, Travels. Here we can only refer to him. Unlike other 
African warrior chiefs, such as Africaner, Dingaan, and Mosilikatse, his 
own determined opponent, he led his men to battle in person. Terrible 
and successful he was in battle. Lake Ngami was known to him before 
it was discovered by our traveller and his companions. Sebituane was 
forty-five years old when first known to Dr Livingstone, who describes 
him as being somewhat bald, of middle height, frank, cordial, wonder- 
fully fleet of foot, very popular, and of a coffee and milk colour. He 
was from the South, and probably of CafFre extraction. His fortunes 
were various, and his narrative is somewhat like the Commentaries of 
Ckesar, or the history of the British in India. For some reference to the 
probable results of his conquests, see Appendix, p. 121. He, like his son 
Secheletu, was touchingly kind to Dr Livingstone, coming one hundred 
miles to meet and escort him to his capital, Seshake\ His desire for 
intercourse with white men was most passionate. The period and cir- 
cumstances of his death were solemn and striking. As we have before 
seen, he died soon after that meeting had occurred which both so much 
desired. "War was the object of his life and the cause of his death, 
which occurred through an old wound in the lungs turning to inflam- 
mation. On his death-bed he said to our traveller, "Come near and see 
if I am any longer a man ; I am done." The native doctors said to Dr 
Livingstone, who spoke to him of another life, " Why do you speak of 
death ? Sebituane will never die." 

Our traveller proceeds : " After sitting with him some time, and 
commending him to the mercy of God, I rose to depart, when the dying 
chieftain, raising himself up. a little from his prone position, called a 
servant, and said, ' Take Robert to Maunku (one of his wives), and tell 
her to give him some milk.' These were the last words of Sebituane. 

"He was decidedly the best specimen of a native chief I ever met. 
I never felt so much grieved by the loss of a black man before ; and it 
was impossible not to follow him in thought into the world of which he 
had just heard before he was called away, and to realise somewhat of the 
feelings of those who pray for the dead. The deep dark question of 
what is to become of such as he, must, however, be left where we find 
it, believing that, assuredly, the 'Judge of all the earth will do right.' " 



COMMERCE AND CHRISTIANITY. 21 

nas 1 made the fashionable tongue, and that was one of 
the languages into which Mr Moffat had translated the 
Scriptures 2 . Sebituane also discovered Lake Ngami 
some time previous to my explorations in that part. In 
going back to that country my object is to open up traffic 
along the banks of the Zambesi, and also to preach the 
Gospel. The natives of Central Africa are very desirous 
of trading, but their only traffic is at present in slaves, 
of which the poorer people have an unmitigated horror : 
it is therefore most desirable to encourage the former 
principle, and thus open a way for the consumption of 
free productions, and the introduction of Christianity 
and commerce. By encouraging the native propensity 
for trade, the advantages that might be derived in a 
commercial point of view are incalculable ; nor should 
we lose sight of the inestimable blessings it is in our 
power to bestow upon the unenlightened African, by 
giving him the light of Christianity. Those two pioneers 
of civilization — Christianity and commerce — should ever 
be inseparable ; and Englishmen should be warned by the 
fruits of neglecting that principle as exemplified in the re- 
sult of the management of Indian affairs. By trading with 
Africa, also, we should at length be independent of slave- 
labour, and thus discountenance practices so obnoxious to 
every Englishman. 

Though the natives are not absolutely anxious to re- 

1 For an account of these people, see Appendix, pp. 86, 89. 

2 For an account of this translation, see Appendix, p. 122. 

3 For an account of this lake, see Appendix, p. 66. 

10—2 



22 LECTURE I. 

ceive the Gospel, they are open to Christian influences. 
Among the Bechuanas the Gospel was well received. 
These people think it a crime to shed a tear, but I have 
seen some of them weep at the recollection of their sins 
when God had opened their hearts to Christianity and 
repentance. It is true that missionaries have difficulties 
to encounter ; but what great enterprise was ever ac- 
complished without difficulty? It is deplorable to think 
that one of the noblest of our missionary societies, the 
Church Missionary Society, is compelled to send to Ger- 
many for missionaries, whilst other societies are amply 
supplied 1 . Let this stain be wiped off. — The sort of men 
who are wanted for missionaries are such as I see 
before me ; — men of education, standing, enterprise, zeal, 
and piety. It is a mistake to suppose that any one, as 
long as he is pious, will do for this office. Pioneers in 
every thing should be the ablest and best qualified men, 
not those of small ability and education. This remark 
especially applies to the first teachers of Christian truth 
in regions which may never have before been blest with 
the name and Gospel of Jesus Christ. In the early ages 
the monasteries were the schools of Europe, and the 
monks were not ashamed to hold the plough. The mis- 
sionaries now take the place of those noble men, and we 
should not hesitate to give up the small luxuries of life in 
order to carry knowledge and truth to them that are in 
darkness. I hope that many of those whom I now address 
will embrace that honourable career. Education has been 

1 See Appendix, p. 156. 



THE MISSIONARY LIFE. 23 

given us from above for the purpose of bringing to the 
benighted the knowledge of a Saviour. If you knew the 
satisfaction of performing such a duty, as well as the 
gratitude to God which the missionary must always feel, 
in being chosen for so noble, so sacred a calling, you 
would have no hesitation in embracing it. 

For my own part, I have never ceased to rejoice that 
God has appointed me to such an office. People talk of 
the sacrifice I have made in spending so much of my life 
in Africa. Can that be called a sacrifice which is sim- 
ply paid back as a small part of a great debt owing to 
our God, which we can never repay? — Is that a sacrifice 
which brings its own blest reward in healthful activity, 
the consciousness of doing good, peace of mind, and a 
bright hope of a glorious destiny hereafter ? — Away with 
the word in such a view, and with such a thought ! It 
is emphatically no sacrifice. Say rather it is a privilege. 
Anxiety, sickness, suffering, or danger, now and then, 
with a foregoing of the common conveniences and cha- 
rities of this life, may make us pause, and cause the spirit 
to waver, and the soul to sink, but let this only be for 
a moment. All these are nothing when compared with 
the glory which shall hereafter be revealed in, and for, us. 
I never made a sacrifice. Of this we ought not to talk, 
when we remember the great sacrifice which He made 
who left His Father's throne on high to give Himself for 
us ; — " Who being the brightness of that Father's glory, 
and the express image of His person, and upholding all 
things by the word of His power, when He had by Him- 



24 LECTURE I. 

self purged our sins, sat down on the right hand of the 
majesty on high." 

English people are treated with respect ; and the mis- 
sionary can earn his living by his gun, — a course not 
open to a country curate. I would rather be a poor mis- 
sionary than a poor curate. 

Then there is the pleasant prospect of returning home 
and seeing the agreeable faces of his countrywomen again. 
I suppose I present a pretty contrast to you. At Cairo 
we met a party of young English people, whose faces were 
quite a contrast to the skinny, withered ones of those who 
had spent the latter years of their life in a tropical clime : 
they were the first rosy cheeks I had seen for sixteen years ; 
you can hardly tell how pleasant it is to see the bloom- 
ing cheeks of young ladies before me, after an absence of 
sixteen years from such delightful objects of contem- 
plation. There is also the pleasure of the welcome home, 
and I heartily thank you for the welcome you have given 
me on the present occasion ; but there is also the hope 
of the welcome words of our Lord, " Well done, good 
and faithful servant. 1 '' 

I beg to direct your attention to Africa ; — I know 
that in a few years I shall be cut off in that country, 
which is now open ; do not let it be shut again ! I go 
back to Africa to try to make an open path for com- 
merce and Christianity ; do you carry out the work which 
I have begun. I leave it with you ! 



LECTURE II. 



The following Lecture was delivered in the Town-Hall, 
on the day after the delivery of the other. Although 
the notice was so short, crowds of persons came to 
hear, who could not gain admittance. Swann Hurrell, 
Esq., the Mayor, took the chair, and some members of 
the Town Council were present. The anxiety of all 
classes to see and hear Dr Livingstone is pleasing, 
since it shews the state of public opinion on several 
vital topics, especially the civilization and evangeliza- 
tion of Africa. After being introduced to the assembly, 
the Doctor, without any prefatory remarks, took his 
wand, and began to point towards some maps of Africa 
just above his head, in his usual manner speaking as 
follows : — 

TN turning to the map of South Africa, I want to 
-*■ draw your attention to three imaginary zones, on the 
southern part, all different in population and climate. 
You will see that this part of Africa forms a kind of cone. 
This cone can be divided into three longitudinal bands or 
zones, just spoken of: the eastern band comprises what 
is generally known as Kafirland, which has been rather 
a difficult nut to crack for the English nation. However, 
the Kafir war has at length ended, both parties owning 



26 LECTURE II. 

themselves tired ; only we had to pay two millions of 
money, and lost a great many valuable lives as well. That 
part of the country is mountainous and well watered. The 
central zone, or Bechuana country, is comparatively dry, 
being seldom visited by rain ; and its inhabitants, the 
Bechuanas, Bushmen, and Bakalahari, &c, are not nearly 
so warlike as the Caffres. Passing towards the West, we 
come to a level plain called the Kalahari desert, not con- 
sisting of barren sands, like the generally received notions 
of deserts, but covered with grass, bushes and trees, and 
containing a population of Bushmen and other people 
called the Bakalahari. I lived sixteen years on the borders 
of the Kalahari desert ; and having gone to the country 
in 1841, I was naturally anxious to ascertain the effect 
the teaching of the missionaries had produced. 

I must own that I was disappointed in what I saw, 
having formed rather sanguine expectations. I forwarded 
the result of my inquiries to the London Missionary Soci- 
ety, by whom I was sent out, and after a little time went 
to the country beyond, where I found the people in just 
the same state as the missionaries found those I had 
left ; and when I compared those I had just come amongst 
with the people with whom I had recently lived, the bene- 
fit of the missionary teaching then appeared great indeed. 
True, the African when Christianised is not so elevated as 
we who have had the advantages of civilization and Chris- 
tianity for ages ; but still, when rescued from the degradation 
and superstitions of heathenism, he evinces improvement 



LECTURE IT. 27 

in an eminent degree. We should compare new converts 
who are still surrounded with all their old associations of 
heathenism, rather with the churches first planted by the 
Apostles, than with ourselves. Public opinion, law, cus- 
tom, and general manners, with us who have enjoyed the 
inestimable blessings of the Gospel so long, are so essen- 
tially different from those which governed the converts of 
the first Christian age, and which still influence those new 
disciples of the better way among whom our modern Mis- 
sionaries labour. If these latter soldiers of the cross have 
sometimes to mourn over the inconsistencies of their con- 
verts, it must be remembered that such was also the case 
with the Apostles, as their writings prove; especially 
those of St Paul, the great Apostle of the Gentiles. 

I was not at all anxious to enter on the labours of 
other men ; for I consider that the young missionary should 
devote himself as much as possible to his own field of duty, 
and not interfere with any other man's labour, but go to 
the real heathen, who may not as yet have heard Christ's 
name, or received his Gospel. Through the instrumen- 
tality of Mr Moffat 1 , the Bechuanas have the Bible in 
their own language. To shew the value put on the sacred 
volume, in the first editions there were two sorts, one 
rather cheaper than the other and the binding less costly. 
The natives, who are rather inclined to be niggardly, pur- 
chased the cheap edition, thinking the binding stronger; 

1 For an account of this Beclmana Bible of Mr Moffat's, see 
Appendix, p. 122. 



28 LEG TUBE II. 

but finding it was not so, they soon bought all the more 
costly Bibles with avidity. 

Mr Moffat's labours, for the first ten years of his mi- 
nistration, were not attended with any apparent success ; 
and a large body of the tribe left the district in which 
he preached ; and went a hundred miles away, in order 
to get out of the reach of his preaching, thinking tc 
live in their own way without any stings of conscience ; 
but in the latter respect they were mistaken, for the 
seed of the Gospel had taken root in their hearts, and 
they were obliged to send to the missionaries for assist- 
ance, and their chiefs used to go backwards and for- 
wards for teaching: there was a constant relay going 
to the missionaries and coming back to teach those whom 
they left at home. When first visited by the mission- 
ary, one hundred were considered proper subjects for 
baptism, and the Church there now numbers upwards of 
three hundred in that one village. Many native mission- 
ary stations are dispersed around. It is an indisputable 
fact that when a man feels the value of the Gospel him- 
self, in his own heart, he is ever anxious to impart its 
blessing to others. Travelling still in the south, I de- 
termined to visit a tribe called the I3akwains, resolving to 
go to the country beyond Kuruman, and when I com- 
menced preaching the Gospel to them, I seemed as one 
who came with a lie or with some political object in view % 
hence they received me with suspicion, saying, " It is too 
good to be true," adding, " this man has some other de- 



LECTURE IT. 20 

sign, which we shall soon see; 1 ' for they thought it strange 
that a man should leave his own tribe to preach to others : 
this caution was rather a good trait in their character, for 
it prevented them making sudden professions like the 
South Sea Islanders. 

Their chief 1 is a remarkable man, not an average 
specimen of his people. He resolved at once to learn 
to read ; and on the very first day of my visit acquired 
the alphabet. Sechele one day said to me, after I had 
been preaching to the tribe, " Do you imagine you will 
get these people to believe by just talking to them \ 
I can do nothing without thrashing them. If you 
want them to believe, I, and my under- chiefs, will get 
our whips of Ehinoceros 1 hide, and soon make them all 
believe. 1 '' That was before he understood the Gospel; 
he soon after began to feel its influence, but, as he ex- 
pressed himself, could not disentangle himself from his 
country's custom of having more wives than one. This 
was a source of disquietude to him. Feeling the Gospel 
at heart, he talked no longer of thrashing his people, but 
suggested frequent prayer-meetings. Accordingly, when 
he consulted me on the subject pressing so much on his 
mind, and especially about baptism, for which he applied 
about two years after he professed Christianity, I simply 
asked him if he thought he was doing right \ What he 
thought he ought to do? I never preached against 

1 The chief here mentioned is Sechele. For an account of him, see 
note, p. 4. 



30 LECTURE II. 

polygamy, but left the matter to take its course 1 . Sechele 
went away, and sent home four of his wives, giving each 
a new dress, &c, saying he had no fault to find with them, 
but the sole reason for parting with them was conviction 
in the truth of the Gospel, and therefore the separation 
was a relief to his mind ; hence I was saved from many 
anxious thoughts on this matter. These women and their 
friends henceforth became the determined enemies both 
of myself and Sechele. Now, among the Africans, if a 
chief is fond of hunting, dancing, or drinking, his people 
are ever anxious to follow in the same pursuits ; but with 
Christianity this was not the case. Sechele was both 
astonished and disappointed at finding the people stand 
aloof from his meetings, and his under-chiefs oppose both 
him and me. I and my cause were now unpopular. Un- 
fortunately at this time there was a four years 1 drought ; 
and the people believed implicitly that their chief had the 
power of making rain, and since none had come for so 
long a time, they suspected me of having thrown a charm 
over him, and would not allow him to make the rain. He 
was the rain-maker of the tribe ; and this fact was easily 
connected with my instruments and movements, to them 
so unfathomable. If Sechele was thus the accredited 
rain-maker of the tribe, I was now the self-appointed 
necromancer, and he had become my unconscious victim. 

1 The reason started for so doing, in answer to a question put, at the 
conversazione at my house, is very striking, " I never preached against 
polygamy, since I was sure that when the Gospel took effect, it would 
operate on the mind just as it did with Sechele." 



LECTURE II. 31 

Many of these people waited on me, begging me to 
allow them to make only a few showers, really thinking 
that I was purposely preventing the rain from descending. 
One old man used to come to me, and say, " The corn is 
yellow for want of rain ; the cattle want grass ; the chil- 
dren require milk ; the people lack water, therefore only 
let our chief make the showers to come, and then he may 
sing and pray as long as he likes. 1 ' Looking at my 
peculiar circumstances, this drought was remarkable. I 
watched the clouds as anxiously as they ; and many a 
cloudy morning, promising refreshing showers, turned 
into a cloudless day as parching as ever. They declared 
that the people would starve, or all leave the district, and 
I should have no one to preach to. It was quite heart- 
rending to hear them, seeing their distress ; and especially 
keeping in mind their mental, moral, and spiritual de- 
gradation. 

I endeavoured to persuade them that no mortal could 
control the rain, and their argument was, " We know 
very well that God makes the rain ; we pray to him by 
means of medicines. You use medicines to give to a 
sick man, and sometimes he dies : you don't give up 
your medicine, because one man dies ; and when any one 
is cured by it, you take the credit. So, the only thing 
we can do is to offer our medicines, which, by continued 
application, may be successful." The only way to era- 
dicate' such absurdities from the minds of these poor 
people is to give them the Gospel. They entertain a 
horror of Christianity, because they imagine that every 



32 LECTURE II. 

one who becomes a Christian does not want rain, 
regarding me as the leader of the anti-rain faction. 
Those who became converted, therefore, cannot be 
regarded as hypocrites; for hypocrites do not generally 
take the line that ensures an empty stomach. I have 
no doubt the Gospel is entering into their hearts ; for 
when I have been passing their houses, I have fre- 
quently heard them engaged in prayer, in a loud tone of 
voice. It is considered very disgraceful for men to cry 
in Africa; a stoical indifference to all sorrow or suffering 
is their educated practice. Yet have I seen stern men in 
public assemblies, crying out, like the jailor at Philippi, 
and weeping in the most piteous manner about the 
concerns of their souls. I doubt not, though I may not 
live to see it, but that God will bring my ministry in 
that region to a good result. 

The difficulty of the chief Sechele, as I said before, 
was with regard to his five wives. The father of this 
man had been murdered, and four of the principal men 
had assisted in restoring the son to the chieftainship of 
the tribe : to shew his gratitude for which service, he had 
married a daughter of each of his benefactors; now, he 
could not very well put them away without appearing 
ungrateful. I found great difficulty in this matter: the 
wives were my aptest scholars, and I wished to save them 
as well as the Chief. In consequence of being sent away, 
these women and their friends became bitter enemies of 
Christianity. Furthermore, the African has a passion for 
an alliance with great men; on being introduced, he is sure 



LECTURE II. 33 

to tell you that he is the remote cousin, relation or de- 
scendant, of some noted man; or some friend or hanger- 
on will tell you for him. Such alliances too have a politi- 
cal importance for the chief himself; since they attach 
powerful men to his interests and service. Hence my dif- 
ficulties were increased by these facts. But the most dif- 
cult opponents I had to contend against were the Dutch 
Boers 1 . 

1 Dr Livingstone often discusses these people, and has little reason 
to remember them favourably. He is too liberal-minded and straight- 
forward for them, and hence they threatened his life. They now reside 
chiefly near the Kalahari desert, being also numerous about the Kuru- 
man station, where they are characterized for industry and successful 
irrigation. The more distant or transversal Boers reside behind the 
Cashan mountains. These were particularly furious against the Doctor. 
These people increase rapidly, and are sheep-farmers ; being somewhat 
deservedly held in low estimation by the Cape community. In manners 
they are kind one towards another, but cruel to the natives. The word 
"Boer" simply means "farmer." Frequent fights occur between them 
and the Hottentots, Griquas, and Bechuanas, with varied results. Our 
traveller considers the British policy of allowing them and the Ka- 
firs to have arms and ammunition, while the Bechuanas and Griquas are 
debarred therefrom, to be suicidal. The metal-pot story is amusingly 
told in the book, pp. 36 — 39. 

The most disaffected are those who have fled from English law. They 
have set up a republic, in order to carry out what they call "the proper 
treatment of the blacks," which is making them render compulsory 
unpaid labour, in return for what they call protection ! These tender- 
hearted Cliristians have introduced a new species of slavery. The Bechu- 
anas will not sell their people : hence the Boers seize children for domes- 
tic slaves. The reason why they do this is a shrewd one. As we have 
seen, there can be no fugitive slave-law in Africa ; hence if 'a slave runs 
away, it is not very probable that he will be recovered. If a child is taken 
away, he does not know his tribe, forgets his mother-tongue, and pos- 
sibly his very parents ; hence he has less inducement to run away. On 
the occasion of the attack on Sechele (see Introduction, pp. v — vin), they 
carried away the two hundred children above-named, with the motives 
and for the purposes stated. In truth they are inveterate slave-hunters 



34 LECTURE II. 

Two hundred years ago, a number of Dutch and 
French people, the descendants of pious families, fled 
from the persecutions in Holland and France, and settled 
at and around the Cape. But their descendants fled from 
the British dominion in Cape Colony, on account of the 
emancipation by the government of their Hottentot 
slaves. They said, they did not like a government that 
made no difference between a black man and a white one : 
they therefore made forays and slavery incursions, and 
established themselves where they could pursue their 
slave-holding propensities with impunity. No fugitive 
slave-law being in operation, hundreds of Africans fled 
from the Boers to Sechele, and the Dutch consequently 
desired to get rid of that chief. They attacked the 
Bakwains while I was staying among them ; and had 
frequent battles with the people, killing many of them 
in these unequal conflicts. As an illustration as to 
how far exaggeration can be carried, on one occasion, I 
lent the chief a cooking-pot, which the Boers afterwards 
magnified into a cannon! and 5 guns into 500; writing 

and dealers, the more distant revelling in slothful idleness on the industry 
of the natives. Themselves they call "Christians;" the natives, "black 
property," or "creatures;" saying, that God has given them "the 
heathen for an inheritance." 

This accursed system has made them fraudulent and mean-spirited ; 
English missionaries, traders and travellers are their abomination, fear- 
ing that they will enlighten the natives, and especially give them fire- 
arms. Hear our traveller's decision about the matter, as far as he is 
concerned : " The Boers resolved to shut up the interior, and I deter- 
mined to open the country ; and we shall see who have been most suc- 
cessful in resolution, they or I." — Travels, p. 39. 



LECTURE II. 35 

to the English authorities, to inform them that I was 
protecting the Bakwains with cannon; and even some 
Boers were killed with guns. The reputation of this 
cannon kept the Boers away for seven years; but when 
their independence was declared by the Colonial govern- 
ment, they again made war upon the Bakwains, and being 
mounted and possessing guns, had the advantage, but it 
so happened that the Bakwains killed some of the Boers 
in one foray, and the latter gave me all the credit for it : 
asserting as a reason, " These people knew nothing of 
shooting till this Englishman came among them, and he 
has taught it them." The Boers, however, ultimately 
were victorious, and carried off 200 children of the Bak- 
wains into slavery, killing 60 adults. 

Sechele, knowing that such a proceeding was contrary 
to their engagements, and all law, set off to go to the Queen 
of England, to tell her of their conduct. I met him on his 
way to the Cape, and endeavoured to persuade him from 
going any further ; on explaining the difficulties of the way, 
and endeavouring to dissuade him from the attempt, he 
put the pointed question : — " Will the Queen not listen to 
me, supposing I should reach her!" I replied, "I believe 
she would listen, but the difficulty is to get to her. " He 
had many conversations with me on the subject, but he 
was determined, however, in his course, and proceeded 
to Cape Town. 

Now, it so happened, that the Governor of Cape 
Colony had just sent home a flaming account of the 

11 



36 LECTURE IT. 

peace and happiness that would prevail under his plan, 
and had he taken any notice of Sechele it would have 
been a virtual confession, that he had made a mull : con- 
sequently the chief and myself met with little encourage- 
ment. He had an interview with the Governor, to whom 
he delivered a letter from me, offering to point out the 
whole of the children, but all to no purpose: it is 
convenient sometimes for governors to be deaf, and shrug 
their shoulders, and to put political expediency before 
individual right. • The British officers at the Cape, how- 
ever — for English officers, wherever they are, are al- 
ways fond of fair play — advised Sechele to go on, and 
subscribed £113 for him; but not knowing the value of 
money, he soon spent it all, giving a sovereign where 
sixpence would do, and so on ; so that he found 
himself, at length, a thousand miles from home, and 
as poor as when he started. Instead of feeling angry 
at the ill-success of his mission, he began to preach 
to the natives around, and many anti-slavery tribes 
enlisted under him : consequently he has now many more 
people than he had before, and finds it hard work 
to be both priest and king. He opened a prayer- 
meeting, and, in fact, became his own missionary 
among his own people. He built himself a house and a 
school, and was the means of converting his wife. The 
people clustered around him, and there is every reason to 
believe that he is a sincere Christian. 

What we greatly need is more missionaries to sow 



LECTURE XL 37 

the seed of spiritual truth. The fields are white to the 
harvest. Glorious is the prospect of the outpouring of 
the Holy Spirit on all the ends of the earth. Labourers 
are wanted in the heathen vineyard of the Lord. As yet 
the missionary has only put in the thin end of the wedge 
towards the advancement of the kingdom of heaven in 
those dark places of the earth, which are still full of the 
habitations of cruelty — Africa, especially. Where, as 
yet, are the mission stations of North or South central 
Africa \ Yet there are numbers of tribes, 

ft In those romantic regions men grow wild, 
There dwells the negro, Nature's outcast child." 

As an encouragement to those who think of being mis- 
sionaries, I need not say more than call to remembrance 
those Reformers who founded our Colleges here. The 
missionary's work is one of the most honourable a man 
can desire. Think of those Reformers ; who would not 
like to be one of them \ The missionaries now are just 
in their position. Those who now go forth as missiona- 
ries, and endeavour to advance the knowledge of Christ 
and His Gospel, are pre-eminently their representatives. 
Like the morning star before the dawn, they entered into 
the thick darkness, and began the glorious work of mak- 
ing known the promises of Christ, for which posterity will 
bless their name. Indeed to be a missionary is a great 
privilege and honour. The work is so great and glorious, 
that it has this promise of Him who " is the same yester- 
day, to-day, and for ever: 11 — " I will never leave thee, nor 
forsake thee,' 1 — encouraging both itself and its promoters. 

11—2 



38 LECTURE II 

Finding that I could not successfully carry on the 
work of a missionary among the Bakwains, I con- 
ceived the idea of becoming a traveller. The question 
came across my mind, Whither will you go, to the North 
or to the South ? I resolved to go to the North, to en- 
deavour to open the country to the coast. Having got 
into the country beyond the Kalahari desert, bounded to 
the south by Lake Ngami, I. came into quite a different 
country, where there are a great many rivers which flow 
from the sides into the centre. They form a very large 
river. The Zambesi is very much broader than the 
Thames at London Bridge. This large river flows out 
at the east end until it gets into the central basin by 
means of a fissure, which is 600 feet above the level of 
the sea. It was highly necessary for that fissure to be 
made. If it had not, a lake would have had to be formed 
for the purpose of getting away the very large amount of 
water which flows into the central basin. The rivers 
there are not like those in our country, since their sides 
are perpendicular. The region beyond the Kalahari 
desert is in the form of a basin, covered with a layer 
of calcareous tufa, intersected by the course of the Zam- 
besi, which flows Southward until it reaches near Lin- 
yanti, and then branches off to the East. In the Kala- 
hari desert there is not a single flowing stream, and the 
only water there is found in deep wells ; but at certain 
periods of the year water-melons are found in abundance, 
upon the fluid of which oxen and men have subsisted for 
days, obviating thereby the necessity for carrying water. 



LECTURE IL 39 

Animals are also plentiful ; and though they took care 
to keep out of bow-shot, I found that with my gun 
I could kill as many as were wanted. In my journey 
beyond the desert, I met with many antelopes of a kind 
before unknown to naturalists, besides elephants, buffaloes, 
zebras, &c. 

The chief of the central basin I have described, is 
named Sekeletu. I proposed to teach him to read, but 
he said he was afraid it would change his heart, and make 
him content with only one wife, like Sechele. I told him 
if he were content with one, what did it matter ? But he 
said, " No, no ; I always want to have five. I intend to 
keep them." Seeing I was anxious that he should learn 
to read, he subjected his father-in-law to learn first, as 
some men like to see the effect of medicines on other 
people, before they imbibe them themselves ; and finding 
that it did him no harm, Sekeletu was taught long enough 
to gain the ability to read. 

I entered this central basin, in order to find out a 
path to the sea : I might have gone to the west from 
Linyanti, but the country in that direction is infested 
with an insect called Tsetse, whose bite is fatal to 
most tame animals. To escape the insect plague, I 
resolved to go northwards and westwards to Loanda, 
the capital of Angola, a large city containing 12,000 
inhabitants, a cathedral, and a Jesuit college. Having 
got down to the West coast, I found I had not accom- 
plished my object of finding a path to the sea, the 



40 LECTURE II. 

way being beset with difficulties and almost impassable. 
In fact, the only conveyance was ox-back, and dense 
forests had to be passed through by tortuous paths. I 
resolved, therefore, to go back, and try if the Zambesi did 
not furnish a good pathway to the eastern coast. 

I did not find the people in that direction quite so well 
disposed towards me as the western tribes : the former 
were accustomed to the slave-trade, and asked payment for 
every thing : they prayed to the departed spirits of dead 
men, and believed that the deceased had power to in- 
fluence the living. When I was at Cassange, the farthest 
inland station of the Portuguese, the governor, with whom 
I was stopping, had a sick child, and the nurse sent for a 
diviner to tell the cause of its illness. This man worked 
himself into frenzy, foamed at the mouth, and, pretending 
to be speaking under the influence of the fit, said the 
child was being killed by the soul of a trader, whose 
goods its father had stolen, and he said he should make 
an offering to appease the vengeance of the departed spirit. 
Now, it so happened that a native of Cassange had re- 
cently died, leaving an assignment, under which the 
governor had taken his goods ; and the natives, not un- 
derstanding the circumstances, said he had robbed him. 
This was the diviner's cue. The governor quietly sent 
to a friend of his, and they each took a stick, and ap- 
plied them with such force to the back of the diviner, 
that he fled in the most undignified manner. I have 
never read of clairvoyance or spirit-rapping being tested 



LECTURE II. 41 

similarly, but probably the trial would be equally suc- 
cessful. 

My journey to Loanda was productive of delight among 
the natives whom I had left, and on returning to Linyanti 
the chief sent several tusks to Loanda for sale ; the men 
also got goods, but by the time they got back to Lin- 
yanti, had been so afflicted with fever, that they were 
all expended. Only 27 accompanied me to Loanda, but 
when the people found I w r as going to find a path to the 
east, 13 4 volunteered to join me. 

The people of that central part were anxious to have 
intercourse with w T hite men, and their productions of 
cotton, indigo, &c. cannot fail to render commerce with 
them advantageous. Without the central basin, also, 
besides cotton, 'there are extensive coal-fields, with nine 
seams upon the surface, as well as an abundance of iron 
ore of the best quality. There is also produced a fibrous 
plant worth £50 or £60 a ton; and I have the authority 
of an English merchant to state, that a fabric finer and 
stronger than flax might be woven from it. The wild 
vine grows here in great luxuriance, and might be 
brought, by cultivation, to bear the most delicious grapes. 

On each side of the southern portion of Africa is an 
elevated ridge, in the centre of which flows the Zambesi, 
forming an oblong inclosure. The climate on the sides of 
each elevation is different to that of the centre ; Mr 
Moffat having found a species of the Angola goat, which 
flourishes in the Northern part of Asia, on the high-land; 



42 LECTURE II. 

wheat also grows there well. This climate is, therefore, 
not open to the usual objection that Europeans could 
not live there. Some of the elevations in this part are 
about 5000 feet above the level of the sea. The 
country hereabout is one of gradual elevation ; still 
there are different climates, ridges, and elevations, and 
the heat at times very great; the high-lands generally 
are cool and salubrious, and fit for European residence. 
The Zambesi was full when I passed it, but even 
at low water it was as deep as the Thames in 
London, and therefore, might be traversed by a tolerably 
sized steamer. At the junction of other rivers with the 
Zambesi there is a rapid, and the coal-field to which I 
have alluded is near it; but the river is otherwise free 
from obstruction, and I trust will be the means of con- 
veying the productions of that country to this, and thus 
opening the way for commerce and civilization to the 
benighted Africans upon its banks. 

The people of the interior are very desirous to hold 
intercourse with white men. Having been cradled in 
wars' alarms, they ask, " When will you bring us sleep V 
" We want sleep! 1 ' meaning peace. One reason of 
my being well received in the country was, because it 
had got noised abroad that I had come for that purpose. 
One report told to the Portuguese governor at Tete was, 
" That the Son of God was coming, with the moon under 
his arm," alluding to me and my sextant. Several depu- 
tations from towns and villages in the interior, in waiting 



LECTURE II. 43 

on me, asked for " sleep. 11 Such was also the topic of 
the songs, and talk of the women. 

All this evidences a certain preparedness for receiv- 
ing the Gospel, and it is for Christian England to 
answer the inquiry with the pure Gospel of the Prince 
of Peace. Already Providence is clearing the way for 
that Gospel; the hand of God has been at w ? ork in a 
striking manner. When I first w 7 ent to that country, I 
found Providence paving the way before me : a chieftain 
had invaded the central basin, before I went there; 
had conquered the country, discovered Lake Ngami; and 
the language of the Bechuanas, into which Mr Moffat 
had translated the Scriptures, had become diffused in the 
district. 

The natives formerly used to cut off the heads of 
strangers, and stick them on poles; but the chief 1 who 
conquered them had made the country safe, otherwise 
my cranium might have adorned one of their villages. I 
am convinced that the Portuguese have never gone into 
this district, because their maps gave a different course 
to the Zambesi; and I am strengthened in that opinion 
from the quantity of ivory tusks I saw adorning the 
graves of chieftains, and put to other uses, thereby 
proving that there was no market for them. Another 
reason is, that they sent all the way to Mozambique for 

1 The chief here referred to is Sebituane ; for an account of him, see 
p. 20. The natives here referred to are the Batoka, with several of 
whom our traveller had some difficulties. 



44 LECTURE II. 

lime, when there were large marble quarries within a 
comparatively short distance. I therefore believe that I 
am the first European who has entered that region. But 
now they have the Bible in their own language, it is the 
fashionable language, and the missionary has no difficulty 
in communicating with them; thus shewing that the 
hand of Providence has been at work. 

When I was at Loanda, I was laid up with the fevers 
of the country, and being very weak, Captain Beding- 
field, with whom I was upon intimate terms, strongly 
persuaded me to go home, offering a free passage ; 
however, I having brought the twenty-seven men from 
Sekeletu, had no desire to leave them ; and commit- 
ting certain papers and maps to the care of that officer, 
bade him farewell. Soon after, I received intelligence 
that the ship had gone down off Madeira, and my 
papers with it. Several lives were lost, but my friend 
was saved; but probably had I gone with the ship, I 
should have been drowned; and had I, on the other 
hand, first travelled eastward, I should have gone in 
the midst of the skirmishes that were then going on 
between the Portuguese and the Kafirs, and might have 
been cut off among them. Even when I travelled in that 
direction, I was in some danger; but when I said I was 
an Englishman, I was allowed to pass. I was told that 
if I went to the East, the people who were for the support 
of the Portuguese government would perhaps kill me; I 
said that I loved a black man as well as a white man. I 



LECTURE II. 45 

often found that I rose in the estimation of the people 
among whom I passed, when it was told I was an 
Englishman, one of that country which is engaged in 
putting down slavery: they called me "the right sort of 
white man." 

In the middle of the country they passed me off in 
a way that I scarcely liked. The people imagine that 
all white people, and the manufactures they import, come 
out of the sea, and suppose that the whites live under 
the water; also, that if they leave slaves, fruits, &c. on 
the sea-shore, that then the white men come up and 
take them away. My men were asked, Whether I came 
out of the sea \ " Yes, 1 ' said they, " don't you see how 
straight the water has made his hair? 1 "' Not relishing 
the idea of being passed off as a merman, I endeavoured 
to dissipate the idea, but the story was too good to be 
easily got rid of. The Africans, whose hair is all wool, 
could not understand my head, and some of them declared 
that I wore a wig made of a lion's mane l . 



1 This idea of the white man actually living in the sea is largely pre- 
valent in Africa. One cause of the terror of the natives at the European 
is, a report maliciously spread about that the white man takes the slaves 
into the sea, and actually eats them. Major Laing's experience was 
somewhat like Dr Livingstone's. He penetrated into Africa, in T822, 
from Sierra Leone, as far as Soolimana, and relates the following piece 
of African droll simplicity concerning himself. Among the Kooranko 
people he was hailed with delighted astonishment, as being the first 
white man they had ever seen. All classes vied in doing him honour. 
The men and women sung in alternate choruses as follows : the men 
sung, "Of the white man who came out of the water to live among the 



46 LECTURE IL 

My object in labouring as I have in Africa, is to 
open up the country to commerce and Christianity. 
This is my object in returning thither. I contend that 
we ought not to be ashamed of our religion, and had 
we not kept this so much out of sight in India, we should 
not be now in such straits in that country. Let us 
appear just what we are. For my own part, I intend to 
go out as a missionary, and hope boldly, but with civility, 
to state the truth of Christianity and my belief that 
those who do not possess it are in error. My object in 
Africa is not only the elevation of man, but that the 
country might be so opened, that man might see the need 
of his soul's salvation. 

I propose in my next expedition to visit the Zambesi, 
and to propitiate the different chiefs along its banks, 

Kooranko people ; the white man ate nothing but fish when he lived in 
the water, and that is the cause of his being so thin. If he came among 
black men he would get fat, for they would give him cows, goats, and 
sheep to eat, and his thirst should be quenched with draughts of milk." 

The women were less complimentary, and shewed a spirit not quite 
so kindly as those did to Mungo Park. The burden of the ladies' song, 
after the dance, was, "Of the white man who had come to their town ; 
of the houseful of money which he had, such cloth, such beads, such fine 
things as had never been seen in Kooranko before. If their husbands 
were men, and wished to see their wives well dressed, they ought to take 
some of the money from the white man ! " This counsel had a bad 
effect, and was mainly set aside by the major's native attendant, Tamba, 
shrewdly slipping in and singing, " Of Sierra Leone, of houses a mile 
in length filled with money ; that the white man who was here had 
nothing compared with those at Sierra Leone ; if therefore they wished 
to see some of these rich men come into Kooranko, they must not 
trouble this one ; whoever wanted to see a snake's tail must not strike 
it on the head." — Lond. Encyclop. Vol. I. p. 259. 



LECTURE II. 47 

endeavouring to induce them to cultivate cotton, and to 
abolish the slave-trade : already they trade in ivory and 
gold-dust, and are anxious to extend their commercial 
operations. There is thus a probability of their interests 
being linked with ours, and thus the elevation of the 
African would be the result. 

I believe England is alive to her duty of civilizing 
and Christianizing the heathen. We cannot all go out as 
missionaries, it is true ; but we may all do something to- 
wards providing a substitute : moreover, all may especially 
do that which every missionary highly prizes, viz. com- 
mend THE WOBK IN THEIR PRAYERS. I HOPE THAT 
THOSE WHOM I NOW ADDRESS, WILL BOTH PRAY FOR, 
AND HELP THOSE WHO ARE THEIR SUBSTITUTES. 



APPENDIX 



KEY. WILLIAM MONK. 



APPENDIX. 



This Appendix is intended to convey valuable information 
illustrative of the Lectures, drawn mainly from Dr Living- 
stone's own sources. Hence this part of the book is in reality 
essentially his own. 

The explorations and discoveries made by him are herein 
discussed on two grounds — as to their extent, and as to their 
results. 

Some of the subjects are treated at greater length, because 
they are of so much importance, and yet are only glanced at 
in the Lectures: the main object of this Appendix being to 
give new information to the general reader, and not to discuss 
topics well known, or of trifling consequence. 

The missionary question is kept in view, since the Lec- 
tures are so substantially missionary ; and because his design 
in coming to Cambridge referred chiefly to such matters. 

These labours, explorations and discoveries will be briefly 
considered as to their extent and results under four aspects, viz. : 
J . The Historical. 

2. The Scientific. 

3. The Ethnological. 

4. The Moral and Religious. 

Section I. — Dr Livingstones Explorations and Discoveries 
considered as to their extent arid results in their Historical 
Aspect. 

"One day is with the Lord as a thousand years, and a thousand years 

as one day." 2 Pet. iii. 8. 
"Whether there be prophecies, they shall fail ; whether there be tongues, 

they shall cease ; whether there be knowledge, it shall vanish away." 

i Cor. xiii. 8. 

It is well known that " What is central Africa ? " is a 
question which has been asked in despair for many an age 
past. The unsatisfactory replies which have been given to 

12 



52 APPENDIX. [sect. 

this inquiry in the shape of expeditions lost, hopes defeated, 
projects abandoned, and theories proved false, make our tra- 
veller's successful solution of it to become the more completely 
triumphant. It has taken a long series of years to help us to 
know as much of the geography of Africa as we do. 

The earliest voyages to the eastern coast were 

Earliest at- those to Tarshish and to Ophir, mentioned in 

tempts at the . . . * 

exploration of Scripture. The Phoenicians under Pharaoh Ne- 

central Africa, c ] 10 are ga ^ ^o have circumnavigated this con- 
as well as of . . , ., . . , 
its coasts. tinent in three years. Likewise it is reported 

that Sataspes, a Persian nobleman, was com- 
manded by Xerxes to attempt such a voyage, as a penal sen- 
tence commuted from death, but he did not succeed. 

According to Strabo, Eudoxus, a native of Cyzicus, made 
a like attempt. The Carthaginians actively tried both to ex- 
plore the interior, and to survey the coasts. The Periplus of 
Hanno contains a journal of his voyage with the latter view. 

Antiquity is almost silent about any explorations of the 
interior. Whatever references to these have been transmitted 
to us by the ancients, they differ from those of Dr Livingstone 
in the significant respect, that they were all attempted from 
the north of the continent, while his were accomplished from 
the south. In fact, most of the ancient and modern expe- 
ditions not only set out from a point differing from his, but 
also refer more to central north than to central south Africa. 
Until his labours threw new light on the latter, the former 
lias hitherto been far the best known. 

Herodotus says that five young Nasaraonians penetrated 
across the Great Desert from the north, possibly as far as the 
Niger. It is thought that this great historian knew the true 
sources of the Nile. Cambyses sent two divisions of his 
army to explore towards the south and south-west; but with 
disastrous results. Alexander visited the temple of Jupiter 
Amnion, which stood in the oasis to the west of Alexandria. 
Under the Ptolemies attempts at exploration were made; also 



i.] THE HISTORICAL ASPECT. 53 

by the Romans, but with no results at all commensurate with 

the enterprising spirit of the two nations, and with their great 

national resources. Ptolemy was extensively acquainted with 

central North Africa, especially with its river system. In 

truth, after ample allowance has been made for the loss of 

ancient literature, especially for that of the great libraries at 

Alexandria, — we can fairly conclude that the ancients pos - 

sessed little accurate knowledge of central Africa. Farther 

we may say, that they knew far less of central South Africa 

than we do now through the publication of Dr Livingstone's 

single Book of Travels. 

, The Arabians at various times have made 
A notice of .... 

the modern at- themselves far better acquainted with interior 

tempts to ex- Africa than we give them credit for. These 

plore the Am- m n 

can continent, restless spirits not alone overran parts of Asia 

up to the time an( j Europe during the middle ages, but also 

of Dr Living- . ! e f„ . _,. J? \. 

stone, large portions of Africa, since the time that 

the power both of their arms and science wand 
in the 14th century, European enterprise has almost exclusively 
carried on these explorations. 

About the time of the discovery of America by Columbus, 
Portuguese navigators by degrees ploughed their way down the 
African coast, round the Cape of Good Hope and up two- 
thirds of the eastern side ; still the great enigma of the interior 
was unsolved by them. The chief of these were Tristan Vaz, 
Gileanez, Diege Cam, Covillan, Payna, Bartholomew Diaz, 
and Vasco de Gama, sent out by Portuguese monarchs during 
the loth century. 

The first European navigator who doubled the Cape, 
was a Portuguese, Bartholomew Diaz, in 1492, who called it 
Cabo Tormentoso, a name which was afterwards converted by 
his master, King John of Portugal, into the Cape of Good 
Hope. In 1496, Vasco de Gama doubled this Cape, and in 
1510, Francis Almeida was defeated and killed in an engage- 
ment w r ith the Hottentots, not far from the site of the present 

12— 2 



54 APPENDIX. [sect. 

Cape Town. In 1620, two English vessels took formal 
possession of Saldanha Bay, and in 1G20, a Dutch surgeon, 
Van Riebeck, settled a colony there. In 1795, a British 
Squadron possessed itself of the colony, which was however 
restored to Holland at the treaty of Amiens in 1802. In 
1806, it was again wrested from the Dutch, and at the peace 
of Paris in 1814, it was finally ceded to Great Britain. 

The slave-trade was the first incentive for exploring the 
interior among Europeans. Claude Jannequin, a Frenchman, 
in 1637? went up the river Senegal, a distance of 70 leagues. 

In 1788, the "African Association" was formed for the 
express purpose of opening up central Africa. Messrs Ledyard 
and Lucas were sent out by this useful society; in connexion 
with which the celebrated Mungo Park sailed on two expe- 
ditions. Under the same auspices Messrs Browne, Blumen- 
bach, Hornemann, Nicholls, and Burckhardt, successively 
went out with like objects of exploration. Timbuktu was 
about this time described by Adams, Jackson, and Riley. 

Early in the next century Captain Tuckey and Major 
Peddie, as well as an expedition sent out by the African 
Company, made attempts at further exploration. Next fol- 
lowed Captain Lyon and Major Laing, who published in- 
teresting volumes of travels. In 1821 Dr Oudney, Major 
Denham and Lieut. Clapperton were dispatched with like 
objects by government. The efforts of Mr Bruce and of the 
two Landers are not to be forgotten; as well as the several 
Niger expeditions. 

With reference to the efforts especially made 

Attempts to open up central South Africa, I quote with 
madeto explore . „ , . . . . ,, 

South Africa, great pleasure from a valuable account kindly 

contributed for this work by Dr Norton Shaw : 
" Zeal for discovery in Africa has sent a succession of tra- 
vellers to explore also the southern portion. The first who 
penetrated any considerable distance into the interior was 
Captain Hop, who in 1761 made his way into the country of 
the Xamaquas. 



i.] THE HISTORICAL ASPECT. 55 

" In the years 1775 and 1785, Sparrman and Le Vaillant 
travelled in the territories of the Bushmen about 400 miles to 
the north of Cape Town. Mr Barrow in 1 7^7 traversed from 
the Kafir region on the east to the Namaquas on the west, 
including the desert of the Great Karee, as far north as the 
Snow Mountains. In 1801, this barrier range was crossed for 
the first time by Messrs Trotter and Somerville, who, passing 
the Orange River, penetrated Lataku. 

" Another party under the command of Dr Cowan and 
Lieutenant Donovan, proceeding from Cape Town towards 
Mosambique, had reached some distance beyond Lataku, 
when they were murdered by the natives. A few years 
afterwards Dr Lichtenstein, from 1803 to 1806, penetrated 
to Lataku, and furnished on his return valuable information 
respecting the tribes in that direction ; and Dr Burchell in 
1812, again penetrated into the same regions, and published 
a work with a map, giving the results of his travels from 
1811 to 1815. Latrobe's Journal of his visit to South Africa 
in 1815 appeared in 1818; but in 1813, a missionary, 
Mr John Campbell, reached Lataku, and in 1820 proceeded 
from thenee towards the north and east to the borders of a 
desert which he was told extended far to the west. In 1823, 
Mr George Thompson visited Lataku, and afterwards pub- 
lished his travels in Southern Africa, with a good map of the 
interior. 

"In addition to the above, several other volumes have been 
published, including the two voyages of Thunberg, Patterson's 
Narrative of his journey into the country of the Hottentots 
and Kaffraria; and Reenen's journey from the Cape of Good 
Hope; White's Voyage to Delagoa Bay; SempW Journey 
from Cape Town; Kay's Researches in Kaffraria; Moodie's 
Ten Years in South Africa; Gleedman's Wanderings and 
Phillips's Researches in South Africa: Stavorinus, Percival, 
Pringle, Bunbury, and Gardiner, have also given the result 
of their experiences. 

"In 1835, Dr Andrew Smith left Cape Town to visit the 



56 APPENDIX. [sect. 

sources of the Caledon and Muprita rivers, ascended the 
CafTrarian Mountains and advanced as far as lat. 23° south, 
having made large botanical and other collections, and laid 
down his route with great accuracy. Mecham and Jones 
were the first to penetrate with waggons overland to Delagoa 
Bay, and Captain Gardiner arrived within a short distance 
of the sources of the Orange River. In 1836, Captain Sir J. 
Alexander, in the employ of the Royal Geographical Society of 
London, during a route of about 1500 miles, crossed the Orange 
River, 100 miles from its mouth, proceeded north as far as 
Nabis, thence north-west, and crossed the Hoop or Great Fish 
River in lat. 27°. He then turned north to the Kei Kaap 
or Great Flat, through the Bull mouth Pass to the Great 
Desert, finally reaching the Kuisip and Walfish Bay, on the 
west coast. He next ascended the Kuisip 200 miles in the 
interior, and finally returned to the Cape. 

" The Wild Sports of Southern Africa, being the narrative 
of an expedition from the Cape of Good Hope through the 
territories of the chief Moselekatse to the tropic of Capricorn, 
by Captain William Cornwallis Harris, was published in 
1839. In 1842, appeared the interesting work by Robert 
Moffat, the veteran missionary and father-in-law of Dr Living- 
stone, descriptive of his labours and scenes in Southern Africa. 
In 1845, the late Lieutenant Ruxton, since better known 
for his bold explorations in North America, visited Walfish 
Bay; and in 1849, Mr Francis Galton proceeded to the 
same spot in company with Mr C. J. Andersson. From thence 
he continued eastwards as far as long. 21°, without having 
succeeded in reaching Lake Ngami, which was subsequently 
more successfully performed by Mr Andersson, who not only 
reached the Lake, but ascended the Teoghe River to the north 
of it. Mr Galton travelled also as far as Odonga, in about 
lat. 18°, south, not far from the Nourse River, which remains 
still unexplored 1 . The Five Years of a Hunters Life in 

1 Messrs Stahn, Rath and Green have since penetrated to the north 
of Damara Land, where they were attacked by the Ovampo and com- 



i.] THE HISTORICAL ASPECT. 57 

South Africa, by P. Gordon Gumming, and the work by 
the Rev. J. Fleming on Southern Africa, have since been pub- 
lished, as well as the explorations of the unfortunate Swedish 
naturalist, Wahlberg." 

The services of missionaries in adding to the stock of geo- 
graphical knowledge in reference to South Africa are not to be 
overlooked. The early Portuguese missionaries were pioneers 
both on the western and eastern coasts. l)r Shaw has already 
mentioned some of the Protestant missionaries. To these we 
may add the names of Schmidt, Vanderkemp, Kitcherer, the 
two Albrechts, &c. It is to be presumed that the Boers have 
in some cases been like pioneers, although sometimes connected 
with very questionable motives and proceedings. 

. Dr Livingstone stands out prominentlv from 

JJr Laving- " r 

stone's labours all these in several respects. A large portion of 

and successes the blank on the of g outh Afr j ca ; g nQW 

greater than ' 

those of any filled up by him, and greater results even may 

other single come from this present expedition. He lias used 

traveller in . 

Africa. his talents and energies with reference both to 

the wants of the civilized world, and of unci- 
vilized Africa. No one can say but that he is right in trying 
to link Commerce, Science and Christianity into one common 
bond for the achievement of these sublime objects. 

Furthermore, he has steadily kept in view the great im- 
portance of calling in the aid of exact science, and extending 
and defining its bounds; especially in those branches of natural 
philosophy which are the most readily applied to the practical 
purposes of life. Men of science do thank and honour him 
for remembering them and their work. The president and 
Fellows of the Royal Geographical Society of London have 
been foremost both in acknowledging their obligations, and in 
awarding their just encomiums and rewards. The Council 
presented him with a chronometer watch for his discovery 

pelled to retreat. The adventurous Andersson has, however, informed 
Dr Shaw, that he intends at once to start, unaided and alone, north- 
wards from Walwich Bay in search of the Nourse or Cunaue River. 



58 APPENDIX. [sect. 

of Lake Ngami. Dr Shaw, in the MSS. before referred to, 
thus relates the manner in which this noble Society recognised 
bis subsequent labours : 

"In awarding the Victoria gold Medal of the Royal Geogra- 
phical Society to him, during his absence, the Earl of Ellesmere, 
then President, eloquently dwelt upon ' the scientific precision 
with which the unarmed and unassisted English missionary 
bad left his mark on so many important stations of regions, 
hitherto blank, and for which our associate, Mr Arrowsmitb, 
has sighed in vain/ In presenting this medal to Dr Living- 
stone at the special meeting of the Royal Geographical 
Society, upon his arrival from Quillimane, the President, 
Sir Roderick Murchison, in referring to the former achieve- 
ments of the traveller, forcibly remarked, c If for that wonderful 
journey, Dr Livingstone was justly recompensed with the 
highest distinction the Society could bestow, what must be 
our own estimate of his prowess, now that he has re-traversed 
the vast regions, which he first opened out to our knowledge? 
Nay, more; that, after reaching his old starting-point at 
Linyanti in the interior, he has followed the Zambesi, or 
continuation of the Leeambye, to its mouths on the shores 
of the Indian Ocean, passing through the eastern Portuguese 
settlements to Quillimane, — thus completing the entire journey 
across South Africa.' May his future explorations be as suc- 
cessful ! " 

Other missionaries may well keep Dr Livingstone's ex- 
ample in mind, and act likewise in cultivating science; of 
course putting it in its place in reference to their own para- 
mount engagements to strive for the salvation of souls. 

Both African missionaries and explorers fall far short of 
Dr Livingstone's investigations as to the extent of their dis- 
coveries and explorations. Here and there one has penetrated 
the interior, in some cases to die there, in others to take a 
transient glance and return. Their labours have been confined 
to researches fringing the coast. No one has before boldly 
crossed the whole continent from ocean to ocean, and given 



i.] THE HISTORICAL ASPECT. 59 

the results of such investigations to the world. Even sup- 
posing any one had done this, we may almost say that no 
one else would return to encounter new fatigues and dangers, 
and possibly certain death. Dr Livingstone himself settles 
this interesting question in the following quotation from the 
letter, addressed to Sir R. I. Murchison, dated 4th March, 
1856, from Tete. 

" It may be proper to refer to what has bten done in for- 
mer times in the way of crossing the continent, though my 
inquiries lead to the belief that the honour belongs to our 
country. The Portuguese invariably applaud any little ebul- 
lition of patriotic feeling they observe in me, and 1 cannot but 
participate in their feelings, when in the history of Angola 
proud mention is made of the brave attempt of Captain Jose 
da Itoza, in 1 678, to penetrate from Benguela to the Kio da 
Senna (Zambesi). He was forced to retire after exploring a 
large tract of Dew country. In 1860 the project was again 
revived by the energetic Dr Lacerda, who recommended the 
erection of a chain of forts along the banks of the Coanza, 
whereby to effect a line of communication between the west 
and east coasts. This shewed a mistaken idea of the source of 
the Coanza, as it arises near Bihe, west of the western ridge. 
But a communication having been made a few years afterwards 
by some native traders with the Moluas (Balonda), the go- 
vernment of Angola was gratified in 1815 by the arrival of 
two persons (feirantes pretos), named Pedro Jaoa Baptists 
and Antonio Jose, with letters from the governor of Mozam- 
bique, ' proving thereby/ as stated in the government docu- 
ment of the day, c the possibility of so important a communi- 
cation.' Certain Arabs too, a few years before my visit to 
Loanda, came from the opposite coast to Benguela, and with 
a view to improve the event the government of Angola offered 
one million of reis (about 142/.), and an honorary captaincy in 
the Portuguese army, to any one who would accompany them 
back, but no one went. The journey will now be performed 
by Ben Habib. Pereira, and others, visited Cazembe, and 



60 APPENDIX. [sect. 

Senhor Gra9a visited Matiamvo. If I knew that any one else 
had done more, or that any European had ever before crossed 
the continent, I would certainly mention it 1 . I cannot find a 
trace of a road from Caconda either." 

The historical results of these labours and triumphs are 
necessarily future. Already some pages are added to authentic 
history by what he has done. Half a century hence will pro- 
bably revolutionize the records of the African continent, and 
of the race of Ham, as a direct consequence of these labours. 
It were idle to speculate as to what these results may be. 
We have every reason to conclude that, sooner or later, 
Africa will be immeasurably raised in the scale op the 
human family ; general science and commerce therein 
extended ; the slave-trade destroyed ; and the glorious 
standard of the gospel of peace planted where heathen- 
ism now reigns. 



Section II. — Dr Livingstone's Labours, Explorations and 
Discoveries considered as to their extent and results in their 
Scientific Aspect. 

" And I gave my heart to seek and search out by wisdom concerning 
all things that are done under heaven : this sore travail hath God 
given to the sons of man to be exercised therewith." Eccles. i. 13. 

The subjects embraced in this section are so vast, that we 
have to be mindful of suggesting principles rather than of giv- 
ing detail. It is thought well to arrange these materials under 
those heads which occur the most obviously in connexion with 
this scientific aspect. 

It must be remembered that the information here given 
refers in particular to the new regions traversed by Dr Living- 
stone, and not to Africa in general. 

1 See Mr Macqueen's Papers, Royal Geographical Society s Journal, 
Vol. XXVI. 



ii.] GEOGRAPHY. 61 

Geography. 

"The earth is the Lord's, and the fulness thereof." Psalm xxiv. r. 

In this science henceforth the map of Africa is greatly 
altered; the immense sandy plains of some philosophers spe- 
culating at home, in which rivers were asserted to be lost, 
and no life, animate or inanimate, was declared to flourish, 
are proved by our traveller to exist only in the fertile brains 
of those worthies; while facts replace these plains with peopled 
and productive regions. 

The following theories propounded by celebrated men, will, 
when compared with Dr Livingstone's revelations, prove the 
undoubted superiority of fact over theory. 

Buffon imagined that central Africa consists of great lon- 
gitudinal chains of mountains. 

Lacepede so far refined on this idea, as to lay down these 
chains; and gravely to belt them with fiery girdles of sand. 

Malte-Bnm doubted these assertions. 

Professor Ritter advanced a theory singularly in accord- 
ance with the facts evolved by Sir R. I. Murchison, from 
geological data, and proved by Dr Livingstone from actual 
observation. We will now discuss these facts. 

This is one of the most interesting features of 

South Afri- Dr Livingstone's discoveries. Sir R. I. Mur- 
ca an oblong , . , l . . , . „ . . . , 

basin with de- chison s great inductive teat in connexion with 

pressed centre this fact puts one in mind as an inductive effort, 
of Mr Adams' celebrated a priori demonstration 
of the position of the planet Neptune. The for- 
mer gentleman, in a presidential address to the members of 
the Royal Geographical Society, in 1852, stated his convic- 
tion that central South Africa is a depressed plateau, having 
elevated ridges running down the eastern and western coasts 1 . 

1 The following is the passage occurring in thi-i address : — " Such is 
South Africa is now, such have been her main features during countless 
past ages, anterior to the creation of the human race. For the old rocks 



62 APPENDIX. [sect. 

A geological map of Mr Bain, and some former discoveries 
of Dr Livingstone and Mr Oswell, were probably the germ 
of this idea. Dr Livingstone at this time was in central 
Africa, far away from all communication with Europeans. 
He by observation arrived independently at the same con- 
clusion, and on reaching Linyanti, on his return from Loanda, 
received Sir R. I. Murchison's demonstration in the box 
sent him by Mr Moffat. The notice of the following facts 
first led him to arrive at the same conclusion. In passing 
northwards to Angola, the presence of large Cape heaths, rho- 
dodendrons, Alpine roses, and especially the sudden descent 
into the valley of the Quango, near Cassange, led him to be- 
lieve that they had been travelling on an elevated plateau. 
This conviction was confirmed by observations made with a 
thermometer and boiling water, whereby he took altitudes at 
various points 1 . Moreover, he found that several rivers which 

-which form her outer fringe, unquestionably circled round an interior 
marshy or lacustrine country, in which the Dicynodon flourished, at a 
time when not a single animal was similar to any living thing which 
now inhabits the surface of our globe. The present central and meridian 
zone of w r aters, whether lakes or marshes, extending from Lake Chad 
to Lake Ngami, with hippopotami on their banks, are therefore but the 
great modern residual geographical phenomena of those of a mesozoic 
age. The differences, however, between the geological past of Africa 
and her present state, are enormous. Since that primeval time, the 
lands have been much elevated above the sea-level — eruptive rocks 
piercing in parts through them ; deep rents and defiles have been 
suddenly formed in the subtending ridges through which some rivers 
escape outwards. 

"Travellers will eventually ascertain whether the basin-shaped 
structure, which is here announced as having been the great feature of 
the most ancient, as it is of the actual geography of South Africa (i. e. 
from primeval times to the present day), does, or does not, extend into 
Northern Africa. Looking at that much broader portion of the conti- 
nent, we have some reason to surmise that the higher mountains also 
form, in a general sense, its flanks only." — p. cxxiii. President's Address, 
Royal Geographical Society, 1852. 

1 Letter, dated Linvanti. 



ii.] GEOGRAPHY. 63 

rise in this western ridge, run towards the centre of the conti- 
nent. With reference to the opposite eastern ridge, in the 
letter dated Hill Chanyune, 25 Jan. 1856, he says, " That the 
same formation exists on the eastern side of the country appears 
from the statements of Arabs, or Moors, from Zanzibar. They 
assert that a large branch of the Leeambye flows from the 
country of the Banyassa (Wun'yassa) to the sonth-west, and 
passes near the town of Cagembe ; it is called Loapola." 

From the longitudes he estimates the distance from top to 
top of these ridges to be about 600 geographical miles. 

In the letter last quoted he further says, "The eastern ridge 
seems to bend in to the west at the part I crossed, and then 
travels away to the north-east, thereby approaching the east 
coast. If the space between the ridges is generally not broader 
than 600 miles, instead of calling the continent basin-shaped, 
it may be proper to say that it has a furrow in the middle, with 
an elevated ridge on each side, each about 150 or 200 miles 
broad, the land sloping on both sides thence to the sea." This 
watery central plateau is elevated above the level of the sea, 
at the same time that it is below the subtending eastern and 
western ridges. 

These facts at once account for the apparent impossibility 
of rivers running in opposite directions. A stream which has 
its origin in one of the ridges may run down inland ; while 
another main artery may be carrying off the water-shed of the 
central plateau in a zigzag, and find an outlet through some 
gorge into the ocean. For instance, the branch of the Leeam- 
bye here mentioned runs south-west, while the Leeambye itself 
flows due east, or south-east. The Coanzo and Quango flow 
from west to east towards the centre of the continent ; while the 
northern Lotembwa runs N.N.W. The one set runs from the 
ridge to the plateau ; the other from the plateau to the ocean. 

Henceforth travellers in South Africa may at once probably 
know where to look for the source of a river, by observing the 
general direction of its current. 

The country about Lake Dilolo seems to form a partition 



64 APPENDIX. [sect. 

in the basin ; hence the contrary direction of its drainage to the 
east and west. It appears to be a correct conclusion that the 
rivers rising in both ridges become collected into two great 
drains in the central trough, the one flowing to the north, and 
the other to the south ; the northern drain finding its way out 
by the Congo to the west, and the southern by the Zambesi 
to the east. 

This desert has been partly described in the 
The Kala- Lectures g ee p> 2. It extends from Lake 

HAKI DESERT. * 

Ngami to lat. 29° south ; and from 24° east long, 
to the west coast. It contains no running water, and but few 



» 



wells. Great quantities of grass and tuberous roots grow on 
it. It is not by any means useless as a tract of country, sup- 
porting much animal life ; but it is dangerous from its great 
want of w r ater. Dr Livingstone, with Mrs Livingstone and 
family, crossed it to Lake Ngami, in 1849, accompanied by 
Messrs Oswell and Murray. Several large salt-pans are found 
in it; and the mirage sometimes appears on its horizon witli 
great perfection. It is covered with large quantities of grass, 
and a great variety of creeping plants, together with bushes 
and trees. The soil is soft light-coloured sand, nearly pure 
silica, with alluvial mould in the ancient river-beds. The 
animals found in this desert are elephants, lions, leopards, 
panthers, hyenas, goats, jackals, dogs, cats, antelopes, and the 
rhinoceros. 

This desert has been for ages a refuge for oppressed and 
fugitive tribes. It is remarkable for little rain, and yet abund- 
ant vegetation. 

According to SirR. I. Murchison's geological 
Rivers demonstrations, and to Dr Livingstone's obser- 

vations, central South Africa was, ages ago, 
almost one vast lake. The lakes now remaining are residua 
of this ; while the great rivers, such as the Zambesi, are the 
natural drains of the great central plateau, the bed of the 
former lake system. Our traveller considers that the drain was 
commenced when the fissures were made at the Victoria Falls, 



II.] GEOGRAPHY. CO 

and at those of Gonye : the immense salt-pans here and there 
occurring being like residua. He says that when the Zambesi 
flowed along its ancient bed, the whole country between the 
lower portion of the Lekone, " and the ridge beyond Libebe 
westwards; Lake Ngami and the Zonga southwards; and 
eastwards beyond Nchokotsa, was one large fresh-water lake. 
There is abundant evidence of the existence and extent of this 
vast lake in the longitudes indicated, and stretching from 17° 
to 2.1° south latitude. The whole of this space is paved with 
a bed of tufa, more or less soft, according as it is covered with 
soil, or left exposed to atmospheric influences. Wherever ant- 
eaters make deep holes in this ancient bottom, fresh-water 
shells are thrown out, identical with those now existing, in the 
Lake Ngami and the Zambesi. The Barotse valley was another 
lake of a similar nature, and one existed beyond Masiko, and 
a fourth near the Orange River. The whole of these lakes 
were let out by means of cracks or fissures made in the subtend- 
ing sides, by the upheaval of the country. The fissure made 
at the Victoria Falls let out the water of this great valley, and 
left a small patch in what w T as probably its deepest portion, 
and is now called Lake Ngami. The Falls of Gonye furnished 
an outlet to the lake of the Barotse valley, and so of the other 
great lakes of remote times. The Congo also finds its way to 
the sea through a narrow fissure, and so does the Orange River 
in the west ; while other rents made in the eastern ridge, as the 
Victoria Falls and those to the east of Tanganyenka, allowed 
the central waters to drain eastward. All the African lakes 
hitherto discovered are shallow, in consequence of being the 
mere residua of very much larger ancient bodies of water."' 

The form which the rivers have taken in the great valley 
imparts the idea of a lake slowly drained out; their beds and 
sides helping to the same conclusion. 

The lakes laid down on the maps are as follows: Taganyika, 
in the north; Maravi, in the east; Ruena, Lukutu, and Shuia, in 
the centre; Dilolo towards the west, and Ngami in the south- 
west- These latter two only have been visited by Europeans. 



66 APPENDIX. [sect. 

This lake was discovered by Livingstone, 
Lake Ngami. Oswell and Murray, in August, 1849. Its di- 
rection, by compass, is N.N.E. by S.S.W. It 
is from 75 to 100 miles round, and, like the other African 
lakes, shallow. Its waters are stagnant; fresh when full, but 
brackish when low, and are the southern end of the great lake 
and river system which we have just been considering. Our 
traveller's object in looking for this lake was to visit Sebituane; 
Sechele suggested the journey; its existence has been known 
to the natives for half a century. The Bayeige dwell on its 
banks, which are annually inundated ; the whole lake is ele- 
vated 2000 feet above the level of the sea. For the pronun- 
ciation of its name, see Appendix, Sect. III. p. 121. 

This small lake, 7 or 8 miles long, and 4 
Lake Dilolo. broad, is situated in the country of Katema, an<} 
was visited by Dr Livingstone in his journeys to 
and from Loanda. Its chief point of attraction is that of its 
being a water-shed, dividing its waters between the Atlantic 
and Indian oceans. A portion flows down the Kasai, Zaire, 
or Congo, to the west, and another down the Leeba, into the 
Zambesi, to the east. The Lotembwa, a river a mile wide, 
which our traveller crossed near to this lake, also flows in two 
opposite directions 1 . 

_ _ Respecting the rivers, these demand far more 

The Rivers • , •,,,., 

of Central discussion than can possibly be given here. Jbrom 

South Afri- ] iear i n g reports among the natives at Ngami, 
Dr Livingstone truly concluded that there must 
be an immense river system to the north of his then position. 
The hio-her he got north, the more he became convinced of this, 
both by observation and report. Many of these rivers rise 
both in the eastern and western ridges. This latter he says 
gives rise to a remarkable number of rivers ; "Thus, the Quango 
on the north ; the Coanza on the west ; the Langebongo, which 
the latest information identifies with the Loeti, and the numer- 
ous streams which unite and form the Chobe, on its south- 
1 The letter dated Linyanti. 



ii.] GEOGRAPHY. 67 

east ; all the feeders of the Kasai and that river itself on the 
east ; and probably also the Embara or river of Libebe on the 
south." 

We have before seen with what difficulty he got to Linyanti, 
and the immense river and marsh system which he found there ; 
looking hence north — and an enormous tract of country be- 
tween Linyanti and the equator is unexplored — he says, "View- 
ing the basin from this (Linyanti) northward, we behold an 
immense flat, intersected by rivers in almost every direction, 
and these are not the South- African mud, sand, or stone rivers 
either, but deep never-failing streams, fit to form invaluable 
bulwarks against enemies who can neither swim nor manage 
canoes. They have also numerous departing and re-entering 
branches, with lagoons and marshes adjacent, so that it is 
scarcely possible to travel along their banks without the as- 
sistance of canoes V 

These valley-rivers have generally two beds, one of low 
water, and another of inundation. Some of the great southern 
rivers have their origin in the great flooded plains of the central 
country. 

We can here only record the names of the chief rivers re- 
ferred to by Dr Livingstone, confining all attempt at descrip- 
tion to one — the Zambesi. Beginning in the west, these rivers 
are, the Coanza, the Congo, the Kasai, the Lotembwa, the 
Chobe, the Kafue, the Longwa, and the Shire. 

T R This may be called a river-system. The main 

Zambesi and stream is a noble river flowing — no one knows 
its tributa- wnence — through central South Africa. One of 

RIES. rt 

the canoe-songs common among the natives on 
the river is — 

"The Leeambye, — nobody knows 
Whence it comes or whither it goes." 

In the far interior it is called the Leeambye. This name and that 
of Zambesi, or Zambesa, mean " The River." An examination 

1 Letter dated Linyanti. 

13 



68 APPENDIX. [sect. 

of the map will shew that it has many tributaries. Our tra- 
veller justly places his hopes on this river becoming the great 
highway for the civilization and evangelization of central 
Africa, because it is the only known continuous watercourse. 
The natives say that there is water communication from Ma- 
tiamvo down to Linyanti. 

This river is remarkable for the amount of animal life in 
and upon its waters ; which rise 20 feet high in inundations, 
and flood 20 miles of adjacent land. In some places it is 
3 miles wide, having many islands. A large number of tribes 
reside on its banks. The chief of these are, the Batoka, Mate- 
bele, Makololo, Barotse, and Balonda 1 . Its general flow is 
3 j miles an hour ; running from north to south in the centre of 
the continent, and then turning to the east. Its banks abound 
with beautiful verdure, large forests, elephants, antelopes, and 
buffaloes : and its waters with reptiles, water-fowl, fishes, &c. 

These are the only serious impediment to 

Victokia . _, . . . , , 

Falls. navigation. Ihere is a spirited account, and 

view, given of them in the book of Travels. 
Suffice it here to say, that they are about 1000 miles inland, 
and about 1000 yards across. They are formed by the river 
rushing into an immense fissure in its bed, about 80 feet wide, 
the waters falling down 100 feet, and then being compressed 
into a space of 15 or 20 yards : the opposite banks being of 
equal height. Our traveller is the first European who has ever 
seen them, and pronounces them to be the sublimest sight which 
he has seen in Africa. One main object of the present expedi- 
tion is to survey this noble river. 

We have seen that the surplus waters are 
ca gradually carr i e( l °ff m the partial emptying of the central 
losing its wa- basin, which is advantageous. But in the south, 

especially about the Kalahari desert, such desic- 
cation has become so serious as to make deserts of lands 

1 For an account of these tribes, see Sect. III. pp. 92, 96, 97, 99. 



ii.] GEOGRAPHY. 69 

formerly fertile. In the Beehnana country all the rivers which 
have a westerly course are dry, or drying up. 

He found the empty hed of a large river which anciently 
flowed from north to south : it was in this that he discovered 
the fossils spoken of at p. 15, Lecture i. The farther south 
you go, the more this drying up seems to take place. 

The parched Kuruman district appears formerly to have 
been as well watered as the neighbourhood of Lake Ngami is 
now, and the latter as well as that of Linyanti. The Mokoko, 
now dry, was a running stream in the memory of living wit- 
nesses. Notwithstanding, Dr Livingstone says that we may 
hope more for the greatness of central South Africa than for 
that of central Australia. 

We have already alluded to the geological, or 
pect of the geographical fact, that ridges of from 150 to 200 
newly -disco- miles in width, run down on each side, with a 
tries. ^ great flat in the middle. These ridges are fringed 

with forests of various kinds. The banks of the 
Zambesi are occasionally loaded with enormous timber-trees, 
and have sometimes a park-like appearance. These are the 
chief variations of the Makololo country. Then there exist 
great valleys, such as the Barotse. Farther west occur some 
flooded plains of from 15 to 20 miles in extent. The Balonda 
country is a flat gloomy forest prairie, unhealthy, and difficult 
to cross. There are large ant-hills in various parts : also arti- 
ficial mounds raised by the natives for refuge in times of inun- 
dation. 

What with "wait-a-bit" thorns, grass 6 to 8 feet high, 
jungle and marsh in some districts, our traveller had enough to 
do to make any onward progress at all. Yet in the midst of 
this toilsome pilgrimage, so expressive of the journey of human 
life, with its pains, penalties, vicissitudes and joys, some of the 
scenes witnessed — especially on the banks of the Zambesi — 
were of such surpassing beauty, and so perfect in repose, that 
he was entranced with the glorious vision ; such an one as would 

13—2 



70 APPENDIX. [sect. 

delight angels, and make mortals for the moment forget the sin, 
sorrow, and shame of the first Adam's fall, everywhere so visible 
in this lower world a magnificent wreck of former grandeur ! 

Geology and Mineralogy. 

" The earth was without form, and void ; and darkness was upon the 
face of the deep." — Gen. i. 2. 

The references to these sciences in the Book of Travels, are 
numerous and valuable. At page 569, is " an ideal section 
across south central Africa, intended to shew the elevated 
valley form of the continent." An examination of this section 
will much help to explain what is said about the ridges and 
river-system in the foregoing paragraphs. 

It appears that both coasts consist of calcareous tufa; and 
the western ridge of mica schist and sandstone. The great 
central plateau is formed of tufa, trap, and radiated zeolite. 
White basaltic rocks, mica schist, granite and trap make up 
the eastern ridge ; coal in sandstone, and igneous rocks inter- 
vening between them and the calcareous tufa bordering on the 
sea. 

The general direction of the ranges of hills on the eastern 
and western ridges appear to be parallel to the major axis of 
the continent: the dip of the strata down towards the centre 
of the country shewing that Africa in its formation was pressed 
up more energetically at the sides than at the centre 1 . 

Our traveller suggests that the fissures which have drained 
the great central plateau are possibly geologically recent, be- 
cause the one at the Victoria Falls has only about 3 feet worn 
off the edge subjected to the wear of the water; and that 
they may be progressive in case the gradual desiccation of the 
Bechuana countrv shews the slow elevation of the ridoes 2 . 

He found, near the Chiponga, a forest of silicified trees , 
some 22 inches in diameter; also near the Zambesi, towards 

1 Letter dated Linyanti. 2 Letter dated Hill Chanyune. 



ii.] GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY. 71 

Tete, other fossil trees : one of these being 4 feet 8 inches in 
diameter. The former were lying towards the river, the latter 
in various directions. Silicified palms also exist on both sides 
of the continent. 

Our traveller says that coal possibly exists 
near the rocks of Pungo Andongo, in Angola, 
since there are geological indications of its presence. 

He could find no traces of it throughout the centre of the 
country; which he much regretted. 

On the eastern coast he positively found it, as is shewn 
by the following quotation from the letter, dated Quili- 
mane, East Africa, 23rd May, 1856, addressed to Sir R. I. 
Murchison : "The disturbances effected by the eruptive rocks 
in the grey sandstone have brought many seams of coal to the 
surface. There are no fewer than nine of these in the country 
adjacent to Tete, and I came upon two before reaching that 
point. One seam in the rivulet Muatize is 58 inches in dia- 
meter ; another is exposed in the Morongoze, which, as well 
as the Muatize, falls into the Revubue, and that joins the 
Zambesi from the north about two miles below Tete. The 
Revubue is navigable for canoes during the whole year, and 
but for a small rapid in it, near the points of junction with 
these rivulets, canoes might be loaded at the seams them- 
selves." 

This invaluable mineral is found and exten- 

IRON. 

sively worked in Angola, both by the natives 
and Portuguese. The Banyeti, a people dwelling on the 
Islands of the Leeambye, make it into rude implements. This 
is also the case with the people of Shinte. Such an important 
gift of nature, occurring in circumstances so advantageous, 
argues much for the success, with God's blessing, of the means 
used for the utilizing and evangelizing of central Africa. Near 
to the river Moamba he found a solution of it running from 
several bogs; and near the Funze Hills he saw some strongly 
magnetic rounded pieces of iron ore. The iron of eastern 
Africa is particularly excellent, and in great abundance. " In 



72 APPENDIX. [sect. 

some places it is obtained from what is called the specular 
iron ore, and also from black oxide. The latter has been well 
roasted in the operations of nature, and contains a large pro- 
portion of the metal. It occurs generally in tears or rounded 
lumps, and is but slightly magnetic. When found in the beds 
of rivers, the natives know of its existence by the quantity of 
oxide on the surface, and they find no difficulty in digging it 
with pointed sticks. They consider English iron as 4 rotten ;' 
and I have seen, when a javelin of their own iron lighted on 
the cranium of a hippopotamus, it curled up like the proboscis 
of a butterfly, and the owner would prepare it for future use 
by straightening it cold with two stones. I brought home 
some of the hoes which Sekeletu gave me to purchase a canoe, 
also some others obtained in Kilimane, and they have been 
found of such good quality that a friend of mine in Birming- 
ham has made an Enfield rifle of them 1 ." 

This precious metal is found certainly on the 

GOLD. \ . J 

eastern side of the continent, and possibly on the 
western side, but not in the centre. It is unknown to the 
interior natives. The following quotation from the letter 
last mentioned gives a complete account of the matter: 
" If we consider Tete as occupying a somewhat central posi- 
tion in the coal-field, and extend the leg of the compasses 
about 3^°, the semicircle which may then be described from 
north-east round by west to south-east nearly touches or in- 
cludes all the district as yet known to yield the precious 
metal. We have five well-known gold- washings from north- 
east to north-west. There is Abutua, not now known, but it 
must have been in the west or south- w r est, probably on the 
flank of the eastern ridge. Then the country of the Bazizula, 
or Mashona, on the south, and Manica on the south-east. The 
rivers Mazoe, Luia and Luenya in the south, and several 
rivulets in the north, bring gold into the coal-field with their 
sands ; but from much trituration it is generally in such minute 
scales as would render amalgamation with mercury necessary 
1 Travels, pp. 650, 651. 



il] GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY. 73 

to give it weight in the sand, and render the washing pro- 
fitable. The metal in some parts in the north is found in red 
clay-shale, which is soft enough to allow the women to pound 
it in wooden mortars previous to washing. At Mashinga it 
occurs in white quartz. Some of the specimens of gold which 
I have seen from Manica and the country of Bazizula (Mosu- 
surus!) were as large as grains of wheat, and those from river3 
nearer Tete were extremely minute dust only. I was thus 
led to conclude that the latter was affected by transport, and 
the former shewed the true gold-field as indicated by the 
semicircle. Was the eastern ridge the source of the gold, 
seeing it is now found not far from its eastern flank? 

" We have then at present a coal-field surrounded by gold, 
with abundance of wood, water and provisions — a combina- 
tion of advantages met with neither in Australia nor California. 
In former times the Portuguese traders went to the washings 
accompanied by great numbers of slaves, and continued there 
until their goods were expended in purchasing food for the 
washers. The chief in whose lands they laboured expected a 
small present — one pound's worth of cloth perhaps — for the 
privilege. But the goods spent in purchasing food from the 
tribe was also considered advantageous for the general good, 
and all were eager for these visits. It is so now in some 
quarters, but the witchery of slave-trading led to the with- 
drawal of industry from gold-washing and every other source 
of wealth; and from 130 or 140 lbs. weight annually, the pro- 
duce has dwindled down to 8 or 10 lbs. only. This comes 
from independent natives, who wash at their own convenience, 
and for their own profit. 

" A curious superstition tends to diminish the quantity 
which might be realised. No native will dig deeper than his 
chin, from a dread of the earth falling in and killing him ; and 
on finding a piece of gold it is buried again, from an idea that 
without this 'seed' the washing would ever afterwards prove 
unproductive. I could not for some time credit this in people 
who know right well the value of the metal; but it is univer- 



74 APPENDIX. [sect. 

sally asserted by the Portuguese, who are intimately acquainted 
with their language and modes of thought. It may have been 
the sly invention of some rogue among them, who wished to 
baulk the chiefs of their perquisites, for in more remote times 
these pieces were all claimed by them." 

Silver is said formerly to have been found on the Zambesi, 
but not so now. Copper is unknown. Malachite is worked 
by the people of Casembe. 

Meteorology. 

" While the earth remaineth, seed time and harvest, and cold and 
heat, and summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease." — 
Gen. viii. 22. 

Most persons have accurate general ideas about African 
seasons and atmospheric phenomena, while but few know 
anything of the minuter details of this science when applied to 
this continent. 

The climate from Cape Colony up to 24° 

d IMATE 

north latitude and as far as 24° east longitude 
is similar. This is a region which has been losing its water ; 
and hence its climate accords with this fact. 

When a strong south wind blows in the south, and during 
winter, farther north, the sky has a murky aspect as though 
huge forests or prairies were being burnt, and their smoke 
were ascending high into the air. Some travellers account for 
this appearance by supposing it to be caused by the actual 
burning of grass, or by the sand of the Kalahari desert, and 
others, by upper strata of cold air. 

The climate of the country about the Kalahari desert is 
favourable to the cure of pulmonary diseases; also that of the 
ridges is peculiarly fitted for restoring debilitated Europeans 
suffering from African fever or heat. 

The air of Londa is generally moist, and depressing; hence 
it is disliked by the Makalolo and Barotse, who sometimes are 
decimated by fever. 



ir.] METEOROLOGY. 75 

The atmosphere of Angola is so moist, that even Dr Living- 
stone's native attendants were seriously affected thereby, lie 
himself was obliged to crawl along in misery, suffering from 
vertigo, and arriving at Loanda a living skeleton. He has 
recorded twenty-seven cases of fever in his book; but, in 
answer to a question put, said that he has had double or 
treble that number of attacks; yet believing that his constitu- 
tion is now as good as ever. 

These much influence the climate. In spring, 

WINDS. . -it- l 

the north wind prevails during the day; the 
wind rarely blows from the east. A hot electric current sweeps 
over the Kalahari desert, from north to south, at the end of 
winter. In connexion with this wind, our traveller found that 
the Bechuanas knew of the electric spark ages before it was 
produced by Dr Franklin. The wind seldom blows from north 
to south ; that from the north is hot, and from the south cold. 
In Angola the west wind almost invariably brings fever, while 
that from the east is very healthy; the north wind in Londa 
has a blighting effect on vegetation; that from the north-east 
and east brings continuous rain in the south; this is also the 
effect of that from the north in Londa and Angola. 

It is well known that extensive tracts of 

DROUGHT. . 

country lying between Cape Colony and the 
Zambesi are visited by this terrible scourge; such as the 
Bechuana country, and Namaqua land. We have already 
seen that immense territories farther north are rather an un- 
pleasant reverse. The Bak wains and Bushmen suffer some- 
times terribly for want of water. 

Most of the districts watered by the Zam- 
besi are subject to more or less continuous and 
drenching rain. There is so much in Londa, that our traveller's 
tent, instruments, and we may say person, were almost con- 
stantly wet. The cloudy state of the sky prevented him from 
taking many observations. The rains are so heavy near 
Lake Dilolo as to destroy the very foot-paths. There are 



76 APPENDIX. [sect. 

dews also, night and morning, such as are not seen in the 
south. The rains are warm on the Zambesi, farther east. 
Showers have been seen, and thunder heard, in South Africa, 
without clouds. 

The following extract gives an interesting account of the 
theory of African rains: "The characteristics of the rainy 
season in this wonderfully humid region (Londa), may account 
in some measure for the periodical floods of the Zambesi, and 
perhaps the Nile. The rains seem to follow the course of the 
sun, for they fall in October and November, when the sun 
passes over this zone on his way south. On reaching the 
tropic of Capricorn in December, it is dry; and December and 
January are the months in which injurious droughts are most 
dreaded near that tropic (from Kolobeng to Linyanti). As he 
returns again to the north, in February, March, and April, 
we have the great rains of the year; and the plains, which in 
October and November were well moistened, and imbibed 
rain like sponges, now become supersaturated, and pour forth 
those floods of clear water which inundate the banks of the 
Zambesi. Somewhat the same phenomenon probably causes 
the periodical inundations of the Nile. The two rivers rise in 
the same region; but there is a difference in the period of 
flood, possibly from their being on opposite sides of the 
equator. The waters of the Nile are said to become turbid in 
June; and the flood attains its greatest height in August, or 
the period when we may suppose the supersaturation to occur. 
The subject is worthy the investigation of those who may 
examine the region between the equator and 10° south; for 
the Nile does not shew much increase when the sun is at its 
furthest point north, or tropic of Cancer, but at the time of its 
returning to the equator, exactly as in the other case when he 

is on Capricorn, and the Zambesi is affected The above 

is from my own observations, together with information derived 
from the Portuguese in the interior of Angola; and I may add 
that the result of many years' observation by Messrs Gabriel 



ii.] METEOROLOGY. 77 

and Brand at Loanda, on the west coast, is in accordance 
therewith. It rains there between the 1st and 30th of No- 
vember, but January and December are usually both warm 
and dry. The heavier rains commence about the 1st of Feb- 
ruary, and last until the 15th of May. Then no rain falls 
between the 20th of May and the 1st of November. The rain 
averages from 12 to 15 inches per annum 1 ." Our traveller 
concludes that far more rain per annum falls in Londa than on 
the coast. 

The winter ends in Londa in August. It is 

SEASOXS. , , " 

very cold morning and night, and hot during the 
day. The following statement made by our traveller relative 
to the varying severity of South African winters may surprise 
many: " All the interior of South Africa has a distinct winter 
of cold, varying in intensity with the latitudes. In the central 
parts of the Cape colony, the cold in the winter is often severe, 
and the ground is covered with snow. At Kuruman snow 
seldom falls, but the frost is keen. There is frost even as far 
as the Chobe, and a partial winter in the Barotse valley; but 
beyond the Orange River we never have cold and damp com- 
bined. Indeed a shower of rain seldom or never falls during 
winter, and hence the healthiness of the Bechuana climate. 
From the Barotse valley northwards, it is questionable if it 
ever freezes; but during the prevalence of the south wind, the 
thermometer sinks as low as 42°, and conveys the impression 
of bitter cold 2 ." 

It need scarcely be said that the summer in many parts 
is intensely hot, especially in the Bechuana country. In the 
Makololo and Balonda regions it is close and steamy; but less 
oppressive on account of clouds. The thunder and lightning 
are sometimes awful. Meteors and aerolites are occasion ally 
seen. The natives shelter themselves in some parts with pa- 
rasols, made of black ostrich feathers; this the Matebele do 
with their shields. 

1 Travels, p. 463. 2 Ibid. p. 463. 



78 APPENDIX. [sect. 

Botany. 

" Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit 
tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the 
earth : and it was so." Gen. i. II. 

In connexion with this science we can only mention the 
new, or greatly-important species of plants brought to light by 
Dr Livingstone in Africa. For the botanist, and. the naturalist 
in general, there is a rich harvest in the newly-explored re- 
gions. 

This is indigenous in Africa. It has been 
raised in the Portuguese colonies for many years 
for the purpose of yielding sugar. In the interior regions just 
opened by our traveller it is growing both wild and under 
cultivation. The only use at present made of it by the natives 
of these parts is for chewing. Both theMakololo and Balonda 
use it largely in this way. The whole district watered by the 
Zambesi is suited to its growth. 

Cotton and sugar are the two mainsta} r s of 
American slavery, yet both flourish around the 
native homes of those very slaves transported across the Atlan- 
tic to feed that wicked traffic. Cotton not alone grows in the 
Portuguese possessions on both sides of the continent, but also 
all along the course of the Zambesi. Two species of it are 
found on the banks of the Zouga and of Lake Ngami. The 
Barotse valley, and other immense flats of alluvial soil, are 
adapted for its cultivation. The cotton-tree is perennial in 
Angola. The people generally spin cotton-yarn with a spindle 
and distaff, after the manner of the ancient Egyptians. 

c ff This is much prized by the Makololo. Im- 

mense tracts of central South- Africa are suited for 
its culture. It is not indigenous to Africa, but grows on both 
coasts, having been originally planted by the Jesuit mis- 
sionaries. 



ii.] BOTANY. 70 

Dr Livingstone believes this to be a fibrous 
Budze. 

plant of great value, and that it was before 

entirely unknown to botanists. It grows about Tete, and in 

large quantities in the country of the Maravi. He submitted 

some specimens of it to Messrs Pye, Brothers, of London, 

who pronounce it to be suitable as a substitute for flax, in 

comparison with which it is stronger and of finer fibre. 

There is a drawing of this plant at p. 646, Travels. The natives 

make a thread of it, which is as strong as catgut. Possibly 

our manufacturers will find it adapted for sail-cloth, &c. 

p , This is another new plant, being a species of 

aloe of fibrous tissue, found by our traveller in 
the same districts as the Buaze. It was suggested to him by 
the Portuguese as being fitted for the manufacture of paper. 

He has met with several of great value. The 
Dianas lCma -^ ux Vomica, producing strychnia, flourishes 

abundantly on the Leeambye. The Cinchona bark 
grows in large quantities on the eastern coast. Senna is there 
growing in whole forests, and possibly, like that of Egypt. 
Another new plant, the Kumbanzo, a valuable remedy in cases 
of fever, is found on the same coast. At page 648, Travels, 
is a drawing of this latter plant. Also at page 649 there is a 
long list of useful African medicinal and other plants, worthy 
of attention from those who are interested in such studies. 

Manioc, or cassava, is the staple food of some central Afri- 
can tribes, just as rice is among Asiatics, and wheat among 
Europeans. Wild indigo abounds over vast tracts of Africa. 
Potatoes are cultivated both by the Bushmen and by the Ma- 
ravi. Fruits, flowers, and forest-trees still remain to be clas- 
sified and described. 

These new districts, like all other parts of the creation of 
God, shew forth His glory, forethought and goodness in pro- 
viding so bountifully for all his creatures. 



80 APPENDIX. [sect. 



Zoology. 

"For every beast of the forest is mine, and the cattle upon a thousand 
hills." — Psalm 1. 10. 

In connexion with this science we can only speak of the 
new species or varieties of animals discovered by Dr Living- 
stone. 

■ _ . , The leche was found by Dr Livingstone and 

The Lech£, . ' / . f 

Nakong, Po- his companions at Lake Ngami. It is a water- 

ku, andThian- an telope, of a light-brownish tallow colour 1 . 

In the letter, dated Tete, he thus describes 

the others : " In the animal kingdom there are three antelopes 

which, I believe, have been hitherto unknown, all of which 

abound in the great valley, but nowhere else. One is specially 

adapted for treading on mud and marshy spots, by great 

length from point of toe to the little hoofs above the fetlock. 

It has a heavy gait, looks paunchy, and hides itself all but the 

nose in water." The native name of the first being Nakong 

or Setutunka. 

" Another little antelope abounds in great numbers near 
Sesheke ; its cry of alarm is like that of the domestic fowl. 
It is called Thianyane. The third is named Poku, and it 
abounds in prodigious numbers above the Barotse. It is ex- 
actly like the Leche which was discovered when we went first 
to Lake Ngami, but considerably smaller in every way, and 
of a redder colour." 

It is scarcely necessary to mention elephants, lions, buf- 
faloes, zebras, &c. as being constantly met with by him. 
These are described in most books on Zoology. We may 
notice a few interesting points brought out by our traveller in 
connexion with this subject, which may not be so generally 
known. 



1 For a description and drawing of this animal, see Travels, 
pp. 70, 71. 



il] SOME OTHER NATURAL SCIENCES. 81 

The immense quantities of game in some parts almost 
baffle description; especially on the banks of the Zambesi, 
between Linyanti and Tete. 

Our traveller observed that the farther he went north, the 
smaller the large game, such as elephants, become. Males in 
the south being 12 feet high at the withers, and those above 
20° north latitude being 9 feet l . 

He was much struck with the instinct shewn by different 
wild animals in adapting themselves to new circumstances of 
security or danger, evincing an intelligence almost amounting 
to the cool calculations of reason. For instance, they soon 
found out the difference between the shorter range of bow- 
shot and the longer range of gun-shot, after guns had been a 
little while introduced. 



Some other Natural Sciences. 
" For every creature of God is good." — r Tim. iv. 4. 

Topics are here enlarged on according to their bearing 
on Dr Livingstone's discoveries, and not with respect to their 
own intrinsic merits. 

In connexion with this sublime science our 
traveller has rendered invaluable services by de- 
termining the latitudes and longitudes of ninety places. These 
are all given in the Table at pp. 684 — 687, Travels. He 
determines the altitudes of fifteen places in the same Table. 

This is a hint which may well be taken by missionaries 
and others opening up little known or unexplored regions. 
entomology Tbia science is particularized simply to intro- 

The duce this curious insect, of which a brief account 

tsetse. mugt be giyen> 

There are drawings of it on the title-page, and at p. 571 , 
as well as a description at pp. 81, 82, Travels. Its existence is 
1 Ibid. pp. 564, 5. 



82 APPENDIX. [sect. 

to us a novelty, and to Africa a scourge. This fly is so serious 
a pest, that a waggon or a company of horsemen is liable to 
be brought to a standstill by its ravages. It is not much 
larger than the common house-fly, yet its bite is certain death 
to the horse, ox, or dog. 

Our traveller lost forty- three oxen during one journey 
from its ravages ; on another occasion, this little tyrant turned 
him back ; and he was frequently obliged to travel by night in 
order to escape its annoyance. The reason why he travelled 
so far north from Linyanti before he turned to the west was as 
much to avoid the tsetse as the slave-dealer's path. 

It does not hurt man, game of most kinds, sucking calves, 
or the mule and ass. An animal wastes away after its bite, 
and perishes from extreme exhaustion. Horses are especially 
liable to injury. A person eating the flesh of cattle affected 
by it, is subject to carbuncle ; even boiling does not destroy 
the virus in the flesh. 

This insect-plague spreads over nearly seven degrees of 
latitude. Linyanti and its neighbourhood are in the very cen- 
tre of its habitat. Dr Livingstone concludes that large game, 
especially elephants, take it into a district. The following facts 
make him think so. It now exists on the Zambesi, in some 
parts to such an extent, that the people can keep no domestic 
animals except goats ; whereas the same districts teemed with 
cattle in the palmy days of the Batoka tribes. Again, Londa 
is free both from large game and tsetse ; yet the people have 
no cattle. Hence he concludes that this insect migrates with 
the larger game. 

Several other natural sciences are enriched by our traveller's 
labours ; but in these, as in most others, he is as yet only the 
acknowledged pioneer. 

He saw birds in immense numbers and varieties, finding 
several new kinds on the Chobe and Leeambye. 

The quantities of fishes, reptiles, insects, &c. noticed, 
and partially described, are bewildering. Yet all are made 



in.] UNITY OF OUR RACE. 83 

for use, enjoyment, and for setting forth of the power, 
goodness, and mercy of God. 



Section III. — Dr Livingstones labours, explorations, and dis- 
coveries considered as to their extent and results in their 
Ethnological Aspect. 

"All the ends of the world shall remember and turn unto the Lord : 
and all the kindreds of the nations shall worship before thee. For the 
kingdom is the Lord's : and he is the governor among the nations." — 
Psalm xxii. 27, 28. 

The unity of the Human Race further proved by Dr Living- 
stones researches in South Africa. 

"We all are one man's sons." — Gen. xlii. 11. 

The physical history of our race is both an interesting and 
profitable study. In reference to the great controversies about 
the common origin of mankind we cannot do better than im- 
plicitly believe the Mosaic account of it, deriving us all from 
Adam and Eve. Differences in colour, speech, national cha- 
racteristics, religious belief, moral, social and intellectual con- 
dition, may stagger some about the unity of the race; but be 
it remembered that these diversities are mostly referable to 
external circumstances. There remains one fact propounded 

in Scripture, and observable in human expe- 
An inward or . .... J .. , . . 

spiritual unity rience, which mcontrovertibly proves this unity. 

of mankind de- Outward differences undoubtedly exist, for which 
climate, mode of life, geographical situation, social 
status, and national bias amply account ; but notwithstanding 
there is an inward unity of thought, passion, prejudice, sym- 
pathy and desire. The same pleasures, anxieties, crimes, vir- 
tues, vices, noble or mean actions and influences, affect alike in 
many instances the soul of the most cultivated philosopher and 
of the most uncivilized savage. Different species would not 

- 14 



8i APPENDIX. [sect. 

have the same attributes. Physiology argues for such unity ; 
more eloquently still do moral, psychological and theological 
science. Human nature, the human heart, the human soul, are 
in every place and at all times in unison. The marks of the 
fall, like springs of action, love, hate, and a common convic- 
tion and hope of immortality hereafter, — held with more or less 
clear assurance, — everywhere animate mankind. Read history, 
hear tradition, ponder revelation, compare man with man, 
woman with woman, child with child ; and travel the world 
over in order to arrive at conclusions from an induction of 
facts, and you must perceive this inward unity. Establish 
this, and the outward must follow, for the body is only the 
earth-made dwelling-place of the heaven-born soul. Dr Living- 
stone's books add to the weight of these conclusions ; especially 
since he confirms them, not by direct argument, but by un- 
designed coincidence. Similar motives sway the untutored 
African in connexion with public and private virtues and vices 
as among ourselves. Many of their foibles are a mere reflex 
of ours ; while some individuals among them display a gran- 
deur of character difficult for us to surpass. Considering 
Sekeletu's opportunities and circumstances, where can be found 
a nobler man? 

Respecting the question of this unity as seen 
or corporeal outwardly or materially, Dr Pritchard satisfac- 
unity of man- torily states : " I have endeavoured to shew, 
that no remarkable instance of variety in orga- 
nization exists among human races to which a parallel may 
not be found in many of the inferior tribes ; and, in the second 
place, that all human races coincide in regard to many par- 
ticulars, in which tribes of animals, when specifically distinct, 
are always found to differ 1 ." 

He further shews this truth by the fact that the physical 
characters of the human species in Africa are not unchange- 

1 Researches into the Physical History of Mankind, Vol. II. p. i. 



in.] UNITY OF OUR RACE. 85 

able, but variable. The negro races are not separated from 
others by one uniform line of demarcation. They have cha- 
racteristics in common with all others ; multitudes of negroes 
are like Europeans, or Asiatics, in all respects except hair, 
colour, form, or some other difference. Hence the negroes do 
not stand alone as a distinct species, for one so distinct cannot 
pass into another equally so by insensible degrees. Varieties 
are more of the individual than of the race. 

Dr Pritchard shews that physical deviations have already 
taken place 

1. Among the Arabs who emigrated into Africa twelve 
centuries ago. 

2. In the colour especially, of the Lybian or Atlantic race. 

3. In the fact that other varieties of mankind have been 
transmuted into negroes : such as the Barabra of the Nile : 
some black Jews in Congo, and the Albinoes, or white negroes. 

4. In the Kafirs and negroes differing much in many re- 
spects 1 . 

The affinities in language everywhere observable, afford 
another strong argument for this unity of the human race. 

Having seen that the Africans are really " bone of our 
bone, and flesh of our flesh ;" the way is hence cleared for the 
argument that we are bound, as brothers, to act for their tem- 
poral and spiritual good. 

The equator seems to be the chief boundary- 
people divided line of this continent in many respects. Two of 
into four great these divisions of mankind are to the north of 
this line, and two to the south. Those to the 
north are commonly spoken of as Mahommedans and Negroes ; 
and those to the south as Kafirs and Negroes. "We confine 
our attention to the last two. 

Dr Pritchard says that the distinguishing peculiarities of 
the African nations may be summed up under four heads, viz. 

1 Researches into the Physical History of Mankind, Vol. n. p. 342 — 

343- 

14—2 



8Q APPENDIX. [sect. 

the characters of complexion, of hair, features and figure 1 . 
The truest characteristics of the negro, are blackness of colour, 
woolly hair, and, according to Dr Livingstone, features like 
the pictures and monuments of the ancient Egyptians, or the 
features of the modern Copts. It will presently be seen that 
some of the races brought to our notice by him, are, according 
to this standard, true negroes. 

The tribes south of the Equator ; and especially those recently 

brought to light by Dr Livingstone. 

"Man's goings are of the Lord; how can a man then understand his 

own way?" — Prov. xx. 24. 

We have just seen that the native inhabitants of Southern 
Africa are usually ranged under the two great divisions of 
Kafirs and Negroes. The former of these terms in reality 
embraces the great Bechuana family of tribes ; to which 
family the name of its most energetic and distinguished branch 
— the Kafir — is thus commonly applied. The latter comprises 
the other races, who approach, perhaps, more nearly in several 
respects to the true negro type. We will now discuss the 
members of these two great branches in order. 

The Bechu- These are the people with whom our traveller 
ana family of has chiefly had intercourse. The Kafir tribe is 
Tribes. a Dranc h of it. These tribes under various names 

are scattered from the eastern to the western coasts ; and from 
Cape Colony in the south, even as far as the limits of the 
Makololo dominions in the north. 

The Makololo generalize this great family of African races 
into three divisions, viz. : 

1st, The Matebele, or Makonkobi — the Caffre family liv- 
ing on the eastern side of the country ; 2nd, The Bakoni, or 
Basuto ; and 3rd, The Bakalahari, or Bechuanas, living in the 
central parts, which includes all those tribes living in or ad- 
jacent to the great Kalahari Desert 2 ." 

1 Ibid. Vol. 11. pp. 341. 2 Travels, pp. 200—201. 



in.] SOUTH AFRICAN TRIBES. h7 

The Kafir divisions of this family are enumerated under 
the head " Kafir ;" the other two are stated by Dr Living- 
stone as follows : 

"2nd. The Bakoni and Basuto division contains in the 
south all those tribes which acknowledge Moshesh as their 
paramount chief; among them we find the Batau, the Baputi, 
Makolokue, &c, and some mountaineers on the range Maluti, 
who are believed, by those who have carefully sifted the evi- 
dence, to have been at one time guilty of cannibalism. This 
Las been doubted, but their songs admit the fact to this day, 
and they ascribe their having left off the odious practice of 
entrapping human prey, to Moshesh having given them cattle. 
They are called Marimo and Mayabathu, men-eaters, by the 
rest of the Basuto, who have various subdivisions, as Makatla, 
Bamakakana, Matlapatlapa, &c. 

" The Bakoni farther north than the Basuto are the Batlou, 
Baperi, Bapo, and another tribe of Bakuena, Bamosetla, Ba- 
mapela or Balaka, Babiriri, Bapiri, Bahukeng, Batlokua, 
Baakhahela, &c. &c. ; the whole of which tribes are favoured 
with abundance of rain, and, being much attached to agricul- 
ture, raise very large quantities of grain. It is on their in- 
dustry that the more distant Boers revel in slothful abundance, 
and follow their slave-hunting and cattle-stealing propensities 
quite beyond the range of English influence and law. The 
Basuto under Moshesh are equally fond of cultivating the soil : 
the chief labour of hoeing, driving away birds, reaping, and 
winnowing, falls to the willing arms of the hard-working 
women; but, as the men, as well as their wives, as already 
stated, always work, many have followed the advice of the 
missionaries, and now use ploughs and oxen, instead of the 
hoe. 

" 3rd. The Bakalahari, or western branch of the Bechuana 
family, consists of Barolong, Bahurutse, Bakuena, Bangwa- 
ketse, Bakaa, Bamangwato, Bakurutse, Batauana, Bamatlaro, 
and Batlapi. Among the last the success of missionaries has 



88 APPENDIX. [sect. 

been greatest. They were an insignificant and filthy people 
when first discovered; but, being nearest to the colony, they 
have had opportunities of trading; and the long- continued 
peace they have enjoyed, through the influence of religious 
teaching, has enabled them to amass great numbers of cattle." 

The language spoken by some of these tribes, such as the 
Bak wains and the Makololo, is called Sichuana. It is more 
or less understood by all the Bechuana tribes 1 . 

They were first visited by Europeans towards the end of 
the last century ; but, unfortunately, by marauders who made 
a bad impression. 

These people, who reside by compulsion in the 
Bakalahari. Kalahari desert, are traditionally reported to be 
the oldest of the Bechuana tribes. Although 
dwelling in a desert they are fond of agriculture, and of rear- 
ing domestic animals. They possessed enormous herds of 
large-horned cattle before they were driven into the desert by 
the pressure of other tribes. They are a timid race, and live 
far from water, in order that they may keep as secluded as 
possible. Some of their little villages extend down the Lim- 
pop o. 

Dr Livingstone, in the letter dated Tete, thus speaks of 
them : " They generally attach themselves to influential men 
in the Bechuana towns, who furnish them with dogs, spears 
and tobacco, and in return receive the skins of such animals as 
they may kill either with the dogs or by means of pitfalls. 
They are all fond of agriculture, and some possess a few goats ; 
but the generally hard fare which they endure makes them 
the most miserable objects to be met with in Africa. From 
the descriptions given in books, I imagine the thin legs and 
arms, large abdomens, and the lustreless eyes of their children, 
make the Bakalahari the counterparts of Australians 2 ." 

1 For an account of this language, see Appendix, p. 106. 
3 Letter, dated Tetd. 



in.] SOUTH AFRICAN TRIBES. 89 

T These names are indiscriminately used with 

Backwains reference to the particular branch of the great 

_ 1 or Bechuana race, which alone retains the original 

Bechuanas. m • • 

name of the whole. To prevent confusion it is 

well to keep this distinction in view. 

Those called Bechuanas live towards the centre of the con- 
tinent ; their territory extending from the Orange river to 
\ 8° south latitude. They principally inhabit plains. 

" Compared with the Caffre family, they are all effeminate 
and cowardly; yet even here we see courage manifested by 
those who inhabit a hill-country. Witness, for example, 
Sebituane, who fought his way from the Basuto country to 
the Barotse and to the Bashukulompo. Moshesh shewed the 
same spirit lately in his encounter with English troops. These 
stand highest in the scale, and certain poor Bechuanas, named 
Bakalahari, are the lowest 1 ." 

Sechele is their chief; their government is patriarchal ; the 
under chiefs being heads of families, or houses. Hence the 
larger their families, the greater the importance of its patri- 
archal head. The Bechuanas cling to their fathers, and de- 
spise their mothers; and are remarkably fond of children. 
These people, especially the women, pride themselves in bear- 
ing pain without wincing. Men scorn to shed tears. They 
practise circumcision, but with concealed rites ; and are in- 
veterate rain-makers. Their dress consists chiefly of a sort of 
skin cloak ; this awkwardly made, and badly fitting a body 
shining with grease and red-ochre, and with a head glittering 
with blue mica schist and fat, does not form a very attractive 
object for contemplation. 

The Backwains are good friends of the English ; yet they 
are rendered defenceless by Sir George Cathcart's " gunpowder 
ordinance," whereby they are denied arms and ammunition ; 
hence the Boers oppress them. 

Their singing is a sing-song e e e, ae, ae, ae. They make 

1 Letter dated Tete\ 



90 APPENDIX. [sect. 

everything round, except their game-pits, which are square or 
parallelograms; but shew inaptitude for handicraft employ- 
ments. The slave-trade is cordially hated by them ; Euro- 
peans inspire them with fear. They have a great objection to 
praying and preaching, but dance and hunt with much zeal. 

It is much disputed as to whether these 
or Caffi-es. ' "magnificent savages" are negroes, or not. The 
following is Dr Pritchard's statement of the 
case, as well as his own conclusion about it : u The difference 
of physical characters between the Kafirs, meaning the Ama- 
kosah, and the Negroes known to us in Western Africa, are 
so great as to have appeared to many travellers to be distinc- 
tive of separate races, and of varieties of the human species, 
very remote from each other. The Kafirs have been thought 
by intelligent and accurate observers, to resemble the Arabs 
more than the natives of intertropical Africa. The conclusion 
to which we are led by the most careful researches into their 
history is, that nothing in their physical or moral qualities 
confirms the hypothesis of an Asiatic origin. They are a 
genuine African race, and, as it appears highly probable, only 
a branch of one widely-extended race, to which all the Negro 
nations of the empire of Kongo belong, as well as many tribes 
both on the western and eastern side of Southern Africa 1 ." 

The Kafirs form one tribe of the great Bechuana family ; 
their national characteristics are well-known to our cost, being 
warlike and enterprising. Dr Vanderkemp commenced the 
first mission among them in 1799. A new mission was com- 
menced by Mr Williams in 1816. 

These people have spread themselves widely over the 
eastern coast, various branches receiving different names, such 
as Caffre and Zoolus; they are called Landeens on the banks 
of the Zambesi. 

Dr Livingstone, at page 201, Travels, says: 

u The Caffres are divided by themselves into various sub- 

1 Researches into ike Physical History of Mankind, Vol. n. p. 344. 



in.] SOUTH AFRICAN TRIBES. 91 

divisions, as Amakosa, Amapanda, and other well-known titles. 
They consider the name Caffre as an insulting epithet. 

" The Zulus of Natal belong to the same family, and they 
are as famed for their honesty, as their brethren who live ad- 
jacent to our colonial frontier are renowned for cattle-lifting. 
The Recorder of Natal declared of them, that history does not 
present another instance in which so much security for life and 
property has been enjoyed, as has been experienced during the 
whole period of English occupation by ten thousand colonists 
in the midst of one hundred thousand Zulus. 

" The Matebele of Mosilikatse, living a short distance 
south of the Zambesi, and other tribes living a little south 
of Tere and Senna, are members of this same family. They 
are not known beyond the Zambesi river. This was the limit 
of the Bechuana progress too, until Sebituane pushed his con- 
quests farther." 

He gives the following character of them, as a race : " The 
Caffres or Zulus, are tall, muscular, and well made ; they are 
shrewd, energetic and brave; altogether they merit the cha- 
racter given them by military authorities, of being " magnifi- 
cent savages." Their splendid physical development and form 
of skull show that, but for the black skin and woolly hair, 
they would take rank among the foremost Europeans l ." 

Our traveller says that the "Kafir wars are known and 
felt more in England than in Africa." In the letter dated 
Tete, he speaks of the confusion introduced by the indiscri- 
minate use of the word " Caffre." " I never can repress a 
smile when Boers or Englishmen speak of the more abject of 
the Bechuanas as * Caffres.' The real Caffres or Zulu race are 
those who have banged about the English soldier so uncere- 
moniously, and are as remarkable as New Zealanders for 
suffering no nonsense from either white or brown. This differ- 
ence in national character explains at a glance why the tide 

1 Travels, p. 95. 



92 APPENDIX. [sect. 

of emigration spreads away from Caffreland towards the 
more central parts — in the Sovereignty and Cashan moun- 
tains." 

Sir Harry Smith says that to fight with Caffres is like 
contending with Circassians or Algerine Arabs. Their late 
fatal delusion in destroying their cattle will be remembered 
by many. 

These people are the most interesting to us, 

Makololo since they figure principally in connexion with 

our traveller's great discoveries. Moreover he is 

the only white man who has yet visited them. The present 

Zambesi expedition is bound for their territories, by way of 

that river. 

They belong to the great Bechuana family ; being one of 
its most powerful representatives. They are more of the 
Caffre than of the true negro type : being somewhat of a 
coffee and milk colour, high-spirited, independent, and having 
some European characteristics. Under Sebituane, and accom- 
panied by some Basutos, they found their way from the south, 
in a small number, and spread themselves over a large tract 
from the northern bank of the Zambesi, as far as 14° south 
latitude. Sekeletu is their present chief. 

These people are honest among themselves, but still in- 
curable warlike marauders. Hence they are hated and feared 
by their neighbours. They dwell among the swamps of the 
Barotse valley, Linyanti being their capital. From their place 
of residence they are subject to febrile diseases. They despise 
agriculture and lead a careless life ; but are very anxious to 
trade with Europeans. 

Their mode of government is genuine feudalism; having 
a paramount chieftain, who governs a number of under chiefs, 
who render him suit and service, and pay their tribute in 
kind. The Picho is their parliamentary assembly, at which 
the senators speak with boldness and freedom. This is held 
in an enclosure called the Kotla. They inflict capital 



in.] SOUTH AFRICAN TRIBES. 99 

punishment. At p. 183, Travels, is a graphic account of 
their courts of law, in which both defendant and plaintiff 
speak ; the chief giving the final decision. 

The Makololo are the lords of the soil, being in a position 
with reference to the Makalala, Barotse, and other conquered 
tribes, analogous to that of the Normans in England, and the 
British in India. 

In manners they are disgusting ; and very vindictive and 
bloodthirsty. They make round huts ; and being gregarious, 
eat together; in so doing they pass a joint of meat hot from 
the fire from one to the other, each one biting a piece out. 
Since they possess a great abundance of cattle and a fertile 
country, they lead easy lives. The men eat, drink, sleep, hunt, 
and go on expeditions; while the women and subject- tribes 
labour at home. Notwithstanding, the Makololo ladies do 
little except adorn their persons and court-yards, and live 
an animal life. They are good humoured and kind ; having 
short woolly hair, anointing their bodies with butter, and 
wearing an ox-hide kilt from the waist to the knee. 

The men are cowardly towards animals, but brave towards 
men ; their arms being chiefly shields and spears. To prove that 
these people are hospitable we need only mention their kindness 
to Dr Livingstone, than which what can be more touching, 
spontaneous, and real ? 

The This is the only other branch of the Bechu- 

matebele. ana f am ily which can here be described. They 
are a Zooln or Caffre tribe, residing on the southern bank of 
the Zambesi, and are almost constantly at war with the Ma- 
kololo. Their territory stretches hence nearly to the eastern 
coast, in a south-east direction. Under their warlike chief, 
Moselekatse, they conquered the Bakone tribes, slaughtering 
or making them captive, and destroying their towns. 

In Chap. xxix. of Mr Moffat's Missionary Labours 
and Scenes in South Africa is a most interesting and instruc- 
tive account of his visit to this chief. Those who desire to 



94 APPENDIX. [sect. 

know what heathen savagism in South Africa really is, should 
read that chapter. 

They waged a doubtful warfare with Sebituane, who de- 
feated and crippled them, driving them from the Zambesi. 

We now confine our attention to those tribes visited by 
Dr Livingstone, during his two great journeys, who do not 
belong to the Bechuana variety. In doing this we go back to 
Lake Ngami. 

The Accounts of these can be read in many books, 

Bushmen. s i nce they spread over regions which have been 
visited by other travellers. These people are the only real 
Nomads of South Africa, residing in the desert from choice. 
They are aborigines of this portion of the continent; subsist 
on game, and have an intense love of liberty; but are mise- 
rably degraded. 

The Ba- These curious people reside on the banks of 

k.oba, or Ba, y" the Zouga. Their language shews their afn- 

eige • the . 

South African ™ty to tne tribes in the North. They call 
Quakers. themselves "Bayeige," i.e. "men." The Be- 

chuanas call them " Bakoba," i. e. " slaves." They make 
fishing-nets knotted just like ours ! In digging pairs of 
wedge-like pitfalls wherein to entrap game they evince much 
ingenuity : as also dexterity in spearing fish. 

Hear our traveller's account of them as men of peace, 
given in the letter dated Tete : " They live on the reedy islets 
of the Zouga, cultivate gardens, rear goats, fish and hunt 
alternately, and are generally possessed of considerable mus- 
cular development. Wherever you meet them they are 
always the same. They are the Quakers of the body politic 
in Africa. They never fought with' any one, but invariably 
submitted to whoever conquered the lands adjacent to their 
rivers. They say their progenitors made bows of the castor- 
oil plant, and they broke; ' therefore (!) they resolved never 
to fight any more.' They never acquire much property, for 
every one turns aside into their villages to eat what he can 



in.] SOUTH AFRICAN TRIBES. M 

find. I have been in their canoes, and found the pots boiling 
briskly until we came near to the villages. Having dined, 
we then entered with the pots empty, and looking quite inno- 
cently on any strangers who happened to drop in to dinner." 

An attempt at making them soldiers failed, as will be seen 
by the following statement : 

"A long time after the period of our visit, the Chief of the 
Lake, thinking to make soldiers of them, took the trouble to 
furnish them with shields. ' Ah ! we never had these before ; 
that is the reason we have always succumbed. Now we will 
fight.' But a marauding party came from the Makololo, and 
our 'Friends' at once paddled quickly, night and day, down 
the Zouga, never daring to look behind them till they reached 
the end of the river, at the point where we first saw it 1 ." 

The Under this general term the natives them- 

makalala. selves embrace the whole negro family of tribes, 
as distinguished from the Bechuana variety; and especially 
from the Makololo : the Makalala form the great bulk of 
the inhabitants in the Makololo country. They had never 
seen a white man before Dr Livingstone. These people reside 
chiefly between 22° and 23° south latitude ; and are in sub- 
jection to others, being somewhat in the condition of the 
ancient Saxon villeins. Their service is genuine serfdom, 
since it was originally dictated, and is still kept up, by force 
of arms. 

As is often the case with the wronged and weak, the 
Makalala are great thieves; and are the pirates of the Lee- 
ambye. The Makololo treat them like children rather than 
as slaves, since they can so easily run away to other tribes, 
the chiefs of which are always eager to receive them. 

In manners they are mild and submissive; they cultivate 
dura, maize, beans, ground nuts, pumpkins, water-melons, 
sugar-cane, cucumbers, sweet potatoes, and manioc. The 
1 Travels, p. 64. 



96 APPENDIX. [sect. 

hoe is the rude instrument of cultivation over the whole 
region. These people are smiths : and are very expert in the 
management of canoes. They fear the Makololo on land, 
and the latter fear them on the water. Devoted love for 
their mothers is a beautiful trait in the Makalala character. 
The These are a stranger-people introduced to us 

barotse. by Dr Livingstone. They dwell in the great 
Barotse valley ; and are now subjects of the Makololo. On 
account of the periodical inundations of the Leeambye, they 
build their villages on mounds ; Naliele is their capital. 

They never saw an European before Dr Livingstone and 
Mr Oswell, who visited them in 1851. This visit is become 
a chronological sera among them, which is signalised as " the 
year in which the white man came." 

Their simplicity is shewn by the absurd practice adopted 
of giving their children such names as " gun," " man/' 
"waggon," &c. They shew great energy and activity in 
crossing their flooded country ; exercise a graceful hospital- 
ity; believe in the power of the eye; and have great intri- 
cacies in their social polity. 

The These are perhaps the most important people 

balonda. revealed to us by Dr Livingstone. The im- 
mense country which they inhabit is called " Londa," or 
" Lunda." The feudal principle prevails among them. Mati- 
amvo is their paramount chief, who resides somewhere about 
lat 8°. 20'. S., long. 22°. 32'. E. Probably no European has 
yet visited him ; yet by report he is anxious for such a visitor. 
Our traveller visited Shinte, and Masiko, who were kind to 
him; also Manenko, and Nyamoana, female chieftains, who 
likewise treated him well ; as well as Katema. These, with 
the hero Kewawa, mentioned in note, p. 10, are all Balonda 
chiefs. Generally speaking our traveller was treated with 
consideration, hospitality, kindness and confidence by those 
several tribes. 



in.] SOUTH AFRICAN TRIBES. 97 

In these people the negro type is strongly developed, their 
heads are more woolly than the Bechuana tribes. They file 
their teeth to a point; tattoo; treat their women with great 
consideration, wear arms, and are very hospitable. The life 
they lead is that of dreamy indolence. They have a great 
dislike for the Makololo, not without reason ; and hate the 
slave-trade. 

In manners they are inoffensive and very polite. They 
have a singular mode of salutation by rubbing the face, arms, 
and chest with ashes. When travellers appear among them, 
they lend them the roofs of their houses for shelter, which are 
moveable at pleasure. Their towns have straight streets, plan- 
tations and square houses. Manioc is their staff of life ; but 
they cultivate many valuable vegetable productions. They 
have little dress, but no idea of immodesty. With them the 
time is spent in marriage and funeral ceremonies, and ever- 
lasting talk. In ability they are gifted, very teachable, but 
lamentably ignorant. 

These are emphatically the black sheep of 
mambari Africa. Dr Livingstone did not visit their 
country, but met with, and heard of them too 
often in the prosecution of their accursed trade. What the 
jackal is to the lion, so are these men to those fiends in the 
white man's form — the European slave-dealers. In fact, the 
slave-trade is almost entirely fed by them. They wander over 
the interior and steal, purchase, or decoy away the natives, 
taking them to the coast for sale. Evangelize these Mambari, 
and get the Portuguese to prohibit their subjects from carry- 
ing on this interior traffic, and, humanly speaking, you have 
stopped the slave-trade, as far as central South Africa is con- 
cerned, for these are the sole agents of its prosecution on land. 

These people reside near Bihe, inhabiting the country 
south-east of Angola. They are of the Ambonda family, of 
Makalala origin, as dark as the Barotse, and speak the Bunda 



98 APPENDIX. [sect. 

dialect, the native language current in Angola. An Ambonda 
chieftain named Kangombe rules over them. 

Not only are they slave-purchasers, but first teachers of 
the traffic in some instances among the interior natives. Pro- 
fessor Sedgwick has already told us of the traffic being com- 
menced with Sebituane in 1851. This was their doing, bar- 
tering clothing and old Portuguese guns for boys. In this 
case, as in many others, the guilt was on their side. They 
took advantage of the urgent necessities of the native pur- 
chaser by refusing to trade except for slaves. Ivory and other 
valuables were offered, but refused. In 1850 they took home 
a favourable account of the opportunities for trade among the 
Makololo ; in 1851 they went themselves as we have seen ; 
and in 1853 a Portuguese came to deal in slaves, kidnapping 
a whole village. Since he was carried in a hammock, he is 
remembered by the people as " father of the bag." 

In settling the conditions for a foray on one occasion, with 
the Makololo, they bargained as a price for using their guns, 
that they should make slaves of the captives, and that their 
partners should take the cattle as prizes. 

Santura, a Barotse chief, predecessor of Sebituane, not only 
refused their offers to trade in slaves, but sent them summarily 
about their business. Not so with Masiko, another Barotse 
chief, who restricted himself to selling them orphans. They 
profess to use the slaves for domestic purposes. 

These people use an activity worthy of a better cause. 
They are very avaricious, and bring Manchester and other 
British goods into the heart of Africa. Get them to pursue a 
lawful traffic, and they would become as active for good as 
they are now for evil. Being by all means desirous of pre- 
venting the natives from trading directly with Europeans, 
they invented and spread the report of the white man's living 
in the sea, eating negroes, &c. They trade very extensively, 
taking slave-gangs about in chains, and have frequently crossed 
the country to the western side. 



in.] SOUTH AFRICAN TRIBES. 99 

These are probably the most complete savages 
^.mJL with whom our traveller has held intercourse in 

BATOKA. 

Africa. They reside on the islands of the Zam- 
besi, and amid the fastnesses of its banks. He found them a 
large-bodied race, fierce, blood-thirsty, and the men entirely 
naked. They seemed to be more astonished at his disproving 
of their nude condition, than ashamed of it. 

These people were numerous, and possessed immense herds 
of cattle until Sebituane utterly routed and subdued them, 
capturing their cattle. " Secure in their own island fortresses, 
they often inveigled wandering or fugitive tribes on to others 
which are uninhabited, and left them there to perish. The 
river is so broad, that, when being ferried across, you often 
cannot see whether you are going to the main land or not. To 
remove temptation out of the way of our friends, we drew the 
borrowed canoes last night into our midst on the island where 
we slept, and some of the men made their beds in them. I 
counted between fifty and sixty human skulls mounted on 
poles in a village near Kalai, being those of men slain when 
famishing with hunger; and I felt thankful that Sebituane 
had rooted out the bloody imperious i Lords of the Isles 1 .' " 

A Batoka chief whom Dr Livingstone visited had his 
village adorned with fifty-four human skulls, on pointed poles. 
They boasted that few strangers ever returned from a visit to 
that quarter. The way to propitiate a chief is to cut off a 
strangers head, and bring it to him. 

In manners they are most brutal. Their mode of salutation 
is to lie down on the back and slap the thighs. Their lan- 
guage is a dialect of the others spoken in the great valley. 

Their tribe is now a mere shadow of what it was, having 
been almost rooted out by the successive onslaughts of Sebi- 
tuane, Pingola, a chieftain from the north-west, and the Mate- 
bele of Moselekatse. Dr Livingstone almost came to blows 
with them on two occasions. 

1 Letter, dated Hill Chanyune'. 

15 



100 APPENDIX. [sect. 

There are many other South African tribes whom we 
cannot now even name, the object here being either to gene- 
ralize with respect to race, or to particularize only in reference 
to such tribes as our traveller brings under our notice in con- 
nexion with his travels. 

The general question of manners and customs 
Traces of the . •.,• -i-. . t. j. j • . 

ancient Egyp- 1S an interesting one, but cannot be entered mto 

tians in many now. Still some remains of the ancient Egyp- 
iespec ^ oder g tians appear among the people in various parts 
South Afri- of South Africa in this as well as in other par- 
ticulars. 

In the deep recesses of the dark forests of Londa, the 
people have cut human faces on the bark of the trees, the out- 
lines of which, with the beards, closely resemble those seen on 
Egyptian monuments 1 . 

" The different Bechuana tribes are named after certain 
animals, shewing probably that in former times they were 
addicted to animal- worship like the ancient Egyptians. 
The term Bakatla means 'they of the monkey;' Bakuena 
' they of the alligator ;' Batlapi, ' they of the fish ;' each tribe 
having a superstitious dread of the animal after which it is 
called 2 ." 

After the manner of the same people, one tribe never eats 
the animal which is its namesake, using the term " ila," hate, 
or dread, with reference to killing it. Traces of extinct ancient 
tribes exist, as the Batau, " they of the lion ;" the Banoga, 
"they of the serpent." The Bechuanas hate the alligator. 
If a man be bitten, or even splashed by one, he is expelled his 
tribe. When a Backwain goes near one of these monsters, he 
spits on the ground, saying " there is sin." A student of 
Egyptian history will easily see the connexion between this 
modern African practice and the feuds of the olden times 



Travels, p. 304. 2 Ibid. p. 13. 



in.] SOUTH AFRICAN TRIBES. 101 

arising from the animal-worship on the banks of the Nile. 
For a like reason the Bechuanas will not eat fish. 

The Makololo pound maize in large wooden mortars; the 
exact counterpart of which may be seen on the Egyptian 
monuments '. 

The mode of weaving cotton in Angola, and throughout 
central Africa, is so like that of the same people, that our 
traveller has introduced a wood-cut from Sir Gardener Wil- 
kinson's Ancient Egyptians ', illustrative both of this and the 
above practice 2 . 

With reference to the peculiarities of race, our traveller 
says; " The monuments of the ancient Egyptians seem to me 
to embody the ideal of the inhabitants of Londa, better than 
the figures of any work of ethnology I have met with 3 ." 

As regards the mode of dressing the hair among the 
Banyai, he says : " As they draw out their hair into small 
cords a foot in length, and entwine the inner bark of a certain 
tree round each separate cord, and dye this substance of a 
reddish colour, many of them put me in mind of the ancient 
Egyptians 1 ." 

Other traces of that wonderful people may be seen ; such as 
the rite of circumcision, the doctrine of the metempsychosis, 
and some other arts and customs. 

These indications are interesting and important, since they 
help the question of the unity of our race, and shew how in- 
fluential and permanent the teaching of one people becomes on 
the minds and practice of another ; hence bidding us to hope 
the more for the lasting influence of true civilization and 
Christianity on untaught heathen and idolaters. 

t. .. This question is merely mooted here. Dr 

Do climate * J 

and geographi- Pritchard says such is largely the case; Dr 

cal situation Li vm p- S t ne says hut little. The former reasons 
influence race? a J . . _ _^ 

a posteriori; the latter a prion. Drirntchard 

1 Travels, p. 196. 8 Ibid. p. 4°°- 

3 Ibid. p. 624. 4 Ibid. p. 379. 

15— 2 



102 APPENDIX. [sect. 

says that climate and geographical situation make men in time 
brave, cowardly, bright, or stupid; Dr Livingstone says that 
men choose, when they can, a mountainous or a flat country, 
in accordance with their native energy and national predi- 
lections. 

The outline of Dr Pritchard's argument is as follows : the 
same races evidence marked differences of physical character 
and particularity of complexion, which are successive, or by 
gradations in accordance with climate and geographical situa- 
tion. This he illustrates by numerous examples 1 . 

Dr Livingstone consents to all this as far as colour is 
concerned, but not so much in other respects. He also 
supports his argument by a reference to facts. Admitting 
that such variations are observable as Dr Pritchard indicates, 
he attributes these, as above stated, to race, not to outward 
circumstances. Hear his argument: " But though it is all 
very well, in speaking in a loose way, to ascribe the develop- 
ment of national character to the physical features of the 
country, I suspect that those who are accustomed to curb 
the imagination in the severe way employed to test for 
truth in the physical sciences would attribute more to race 
or breed than to mere scenery. Look at the Bushmen — 
living on the same plains, eating the same food, but often 
in scantier measure, and subjected to the same climatorial 
and physical influences as the Bakalahari, yet how enor- 
mously different the results ! The Bushman has a wiry, 
compact frame; is brave and independent; scorns to till 
the ground or keep domestic animals. The Bakalahari is 
spiritless and abject in demeanour and thought, delights in 
cultivating a little corn or pumpkins, or in rearing a few 
goats. Both races have been looking at the same scenes for 
centuries 2 ." 

" The cause of the difference observed in tribes inhabit- 
ing the same localities, though it spoils the poetry of the 

1 See Work, Vol. Ii. Chap. xv. § r. 2 Letter dated Tete'. 



iil] SOUTH AFRICAN TRIBES. 103 

thing, consists in certain spots being the choice of the race 
or family. So when we see certain characters assembled on 
particular spots, it may be more precise to say that we see 
the antecedent disposition manifested in the selection, rather 
than that the part chosen produced a subsequent disposition. 
This may be evident when I say that, in the case of the 
Bakalahari and Bushmen, we have instances of compulsion 
and choice. The Bakalahari were the first body of Bechuana 
emigrants who came into the country. They possessed large 
herds of very long-horned cattle, the remains of which are 
now at Ngami. A second migration of Bechuanas deprived 
them of their cattle and drove them into the desert. They 
still cleave most tenaciously to the tastes of their race. 
While, for the Bushman, the desert is his choice, and ever 
has been from near the Coanza to the Cape. When we see 
a choice fallen on mountains, it means onty that the race 
meant to defend itself. Their progenitors recognised the 
principle, acknowledged universally, except when Caffre 
police or Hottentots rebel, viz. that none deserve liberty 
except those who fight for it. This principle gathers 
strength from locality, tradition develops it more and more, 
yet still I think the principle was first, foremost, and alone 
vital'." 

With reference to colour, our traveller makes some re- 
markable statements. He says that heat alone does not 
produce blackness of skin, but heat and moisture com- 
bined. 

He suspects that five longitudinal bands of colour run 
across the South African Continent : " Apart from the in- 
fluences of elevation, heat, humidity, and degradation, I have 
imagined that the lighter and darker colours observed in the 
native population, run in five longitudinal bands along the 
southern portion of the continent. Those on the seaboard of 
both the east and west are very dark; then two bands of 
1 Letter dated Tet^. 



104 APPENDIX. [sect. 

lighter colour lie about three hundred miles from each coast, 
of which the westerly one, bending round, embraces the Kala- 
hari Desert and Bechuana countries; and then the central 
basin is very dark again V 

. . . ,. This is an important subiect even in a mis- 

Airican dis- , * '' 

eases and na- sionary point of view. We have before seen 
tive medical the importance to African missionaries and tra- 
vellers of possessing medical and surgical know- 
ledge 2 . It is well here to give an idea of the direction and 
extent of the availability of such knowledge, in order that 
the departments the most useful and likely to be wanted 
may be known. 

Of African diseases, it is generally acknowledged that 
fever is the most prevalent and fatal. There are also pneu- 
monia and other inflammations; rheumatism, disease of the 
heart, and indigestion. Hooping cough is frequent, but 
ophthalmia very prevalent. 

Many of our own diseases are happily unknown in 
Africa. The doctor heard possibly of one case of hydro- 
phobia among the Bakwains. But he met with no con- 
sumption, no scrofula, no confirmed insanity or hydro- 
cephalus, cancer or cholera ; neither some internal com- 
plaints, nor cutaneous diseases, and but little idiocy. 
Small-pox and measles twenty years ago ravaged the in- 
terior, being caught from the coast, but have not appeared 
since. 

He makes a curious statement about a certain loath- 
some disease, viz. that it dies out of itself in the pure 
African race; and is virulent and permanent or not, just in 
accordance with the proportion of European blood in the 
veins of the patient. 

A comparison of these tables of diseases shews that civi- 
lization, like all other earthly goods, is not an unmixed 
blessing. 

1 Travels, p. 339. 2 See note, p. xvn. 



1 



in.] SOUTH AFRICAN TRIBES. J 05 

The native medical practice, as might be expected, is 
very defective. They have some good remedies, especially 
for fever. Inoculation and cupping are known to them. 
Medicines are regarded as charms. Surgery is at a low ebb 
among them. In midwifery they are particularly unskilful. 
Women are the sole practitioners in such cases. Dr Living- 
stone conferred great benefits both in medicine and surgery 
on multitudes during his residence in Africa. 

To establish these points is of great con- 

lhe g e ™ u s sequence to Africa, and the world, but espe- 

native South cially to our own country. The truth is, the 

Africans for interior Africans are shrewdly alive to the im- 

commerce ; as • t ' 

well as the fit- portance of trade. This is especially shewn 

ness of their in the case f t j le Makololo. The Bechuanas 

soil and its pro- . 

ductions for and Basutos love agriculture; while the Ba- 

commercial tonga are well-skilled in it. Other tribes give 
evidences of being good handicraftsmen. More- 
over, they have not only the desire and ability to become 
traders in a lawful traffic, but also they are in the position of 
the best of customers, viz. almost unlimited wants as to arts 
and manufactures, &c. as well as boundless resources in raw 
material to give in exchange. 

Various parts of this little book give ample evidence of 
the fitness of their soil and of its productions for commercial 
purposes. All the staple food for man and beast can be 
produced in lavish profusion ; while valuable minerals, such 
as coal, iron and gold, are likewise procurable. 

What they want is direct intercourse and trade with 
Europeans, in order to destroy the unlawful traffic of the 
Mambari and native Portuguese. This being one great 
object of the present expedition, our manufacturers and 
traders are as much interested in its successful issue, as men 
of science, philanthropists, and Christian Churches. 



106 APPENDIX. [sect. 

THE SICHUANA LANGUAGE. 

" And the whole earth was of one language, and of one speech." — 

Gen. xi. I. 
"Go to, let us go down, and there confound their language, that they 
may not understand one another's speech." — Gen. v. 7. 

The question of Language is one of the most important 
in connexion with Dr Livingstone's African discoveries 
past or future. It will here be shewn that such is especially 
the case with the Sichuana, spoken by the Bechuana 
tribes. 

Being the means of communication between man and 
man, Language is concerned with all the great topics 
embraced in the central African question. 

For the following condensed account of this language 
I am indebted to the kindness of Professor Sedgwick, who 
allows me to make a few notes from a copy of an unpub- 
lished work of Dr Livingstone's sent to him as a parting 
memorial of friendship by our traveller two days before the 
expedition set sail. This book "An Analysis of the Language 
of (he Bechuanas by David Livingstone" was written by 
him in "1852, at Kuruman. 25 copies only were printed in 
February last, for the use of the Members of the Zambesi 
expedition, with a view of imparting to them a general idea 
of the structure of South African languages. Hence this in- 
formation to the general reader is entirely new. Our limits 
will not admit of more than a brief view of this subject. 

We may here remark that the word Sichuana is an 
adjective applied to anything belonging to the nation. The 
national name Bechuana is simply the plural of Mochuana, 
a single individual. 

In reference to the general question of affinities in 
language, it is very striking to observe the likeness in 
several respects between this and the ancient Egyptian. 
Chevalier Bunsen, in his "Egypt's Place in Universal 



in.] SICHUANA LANGUAGE. 107 

History;" and Dr Pritchard, in the volume before quoted, 
both discuss the influence of the ancient Egyptian lan- 
guage on African dialects in general. Dr Livingstone says 
of this influence with reference to Sichuana: 

" In believing that there exists a resemblance between 
the African languages and the ancient Egyptian, we are 
guided by affinity in structure. There has been nothing 
done until now to fix the former, while the latter appears 
before us unchanged in its state of primitive development, 
though thousands of years old. The system, however, of 
affixes, prefixes, formation of the verb, &c, which may be 
said to form the scaffolding of the two languages, continues 
essentially the same. A remark of Dr Lepsius, quoted in 
vol i. p. 276 of the Chevalier Bunsen's work, "that the 
vowel forming the termination of certain polysyllabic 
Egyptian words, in Coptic always forms part of the sound 
of the first syllable," seems to contain the germ of the 
system of signs now so largely developed in Sichuana. 
Reduplication, in order to impart intensity, is also perpetu- 
ally employed, thus: ma, mother; mamaisa, to nurse, to 
comfort; tlola, to remain; tlolatlola, remain some time; 
tlogo, the head; tlogotlogo, the heads of the people = the 
elders ; or in the following ditty spoken to the fire in kind- 
ling it : — 

fire 1 catch-catch 1 wood I brothers J mine I they I tremble-tremble 
molelo I cuara-cuara | logon | bo j nake j bo j roroma-roroma 

= fire, do catch the wood; my brothers are trembling much. 
Adjectives, too, are used as verbs ; thus : molemo, good or 
goodness; Icmohala, become good; molatu, guilt or guilty; 
latuhala, become guilty; latuhatsa, cause to become guilty 
= accuse ; intle, beautiful ; inllahatsa, make beautiful ; lele, 
long; lelehatsa, make long. Then nouns are formed from 
these again, thus : temohalo, a becoming good ; tatnhalo, a 
becoming guilty = latuhaco, accusation; telehaco, a making 
long; tsepha, cleanse or purify; tsepho, purity; itsepha, 



108 APPENDIX. [sect. 

cleanse oneself; itsepkisa, make oneself pure ; boitsepho, 
holiness. It is also worthy of observation that the inser- 
tion of the letter s into the verb converts being into action 
(Bunsen, p, 275). It forms the causative, the stimulus to 
the activity of the predicate. The letter I, too, engrafted 
on to the root, plays an important part in the expression of 
relationship 1 ." 

In another place he remarks; "The Sichuana absolute 
verb, like that of the ancient Egyptian is often ex- 
pressed by the same words which express the absolute 
noun : a peculiarity which, according to Bunsen, may be 
explained in a philosophical point of view by the insepara- 
ble union, and therefore apparent identity, of the two ideas 
of personality and existence. I have often been struck by 
the similarity the structure of this language bears to 
Sichuana 2 ." 

Community of customs, physical conformation, and 
speech, shew a remarkable link between the inhabitants of 
the two extremes of the Continent. 

At page 103, we quoted Dr Livingstone's opinion that 
the lighter and darker colors of the native populations run 
in five longitudinal bands across the Continent. He says 
that language can be traced in like manner. 

" It is singular that the dialects spoken by the different 
tribes, have arranged themselves in a fashion which seems 
to indicate migration along the lines of colour. The dialects 
spoken in the extreme south, whether Hottentot or Caffre, 
bear a close affinity to those of the tribes living immediately 
on their northern borders : one glides into the other, and 
their affinities are so easily detected, that they are at once 
recognised to be cognate. If the dialects of extreme points 
are compared, as that of the Caffres and the tribes near the 
Equator, it is more difficult to recognise the fact, which is 
really the case, that all the dialects belong to but two 
1 Analysis, &c, pp. 38, 39. 2 Ibid. p. 2. 



iii.J SICHUANA LANGUAGE. 109 

families of languages. Examination of the roots of the 
words of the dialects, arranged in geographical order, shows 
that they merge into each other, and there is not nearly so 
much difference between the extremes of east and west as 
between those of north and south; the dialect spoken at 
Tete resembling closely that in Angola 1 ." 

THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE SICHUANA LANGUAGE. 

" A bird's-eye view of the structure of the language is 

easily obtained by classifying the particles or signs of 

nouns, and by separating the roots or radicals from all 

their flexions and combinations with prefixes, suffixes, and 

other signs, whereby relation, determination, demonstration, 

reversion, causation, distribution, &c. &c., are expressed. 

Radical nouns and verbs are then seen to constitute the 

hard skeleton of the language, and these, in learning to 

speak it, are to be mastered by the exercise of the memory 

alone 2 ." 

The elementary forms and flexions of the 
feigns. . , . . . , 

verbs and roots, and the numerous particles 

and signs, form a remarkable feature in this and all cognate 

dialects. These are the chief peculiarities in the structure 

of the language. 

" Each of the signs has a determinate definite meaning, 
and admits of being classed with others into a few orders, 
and, when applied to the radicals, they impart thereto their 
distinctive meaning, and eliminate an almost infinite variety 
of shades of thought extremely interesting to the mind 
which can fairly grasp the wonderful peculiarity 3 ." 

These particles are simple, have few exceptions, and are 
correctly and invariably employed by ah classes. The 
great feature in them is, that they make up for what would 

1 Travels, p. 339. 2 Analysis, dr. p. 4. 

3 Ibid. p. 4. 



110 



APPENDIX. 



[[sect. 



be the confusion confounded of nouns, verbs, pronouns, and 
adverbs being used convertibly the one for the other. 

The repetition of the signs of nouns gives precision to 
the sentence. These signs impart force and clearness to 
each member of a proposition, and prevent any mistake 
about the antecedent. By a single letter or syllable a recur- 
rent allusion to a subject spoken of can be made, without 
such circumlocution as "The said defendant" "Said sub- 
ject matter" used by our lawyers. The sign in Sichuana is 
employed in the same manner as the Greek article; but 
always comes after the noun. It certainly is strange to us to 
say "dog a" or "moon the" but so speak the Bechuanas; 
enca e for the one; and nueri e for the other 1 . 

These signs are arranged by Dr Livingstone into three 
classes which embrace all the nouns in the language 2 ; the 
following is a conspectus of these classes. 



i st CLASS. 
Singular. 
Particle e. 
All nouns beginning with the 
letters p, e, c, k, t, i, n, i, n, take 
e as their particle or sign in the 
singular number. 

(Pechtining.) 



Plural. 
Particle li, or tse. 
All nouns beginning with the 
letters p, e, c, k, t, i, n, i, n, form 
their plural by prefixing li, which 
li repeated after the noun is the 
pi. sign ; tse is interchangeable 
with li for the sake of euphony. 



2nd CLASS. 
Particles bo, le, lo, se, yo, ye. 
All nouns beginning with the 
syllables bo, le, lo, se, take bo, le, 
lo, se, as their signs ; bo and le 
having yo and ye supplemental. 
(Bolelose.) 



1 Analysis, p. 9. 



Particles a, li, tse. 
All nouns beginning with the 
syllables bo, le, lo, se, form their 
plural thus : bo, le are changed 
into ma, and the pi. sign is a. Lo, 
se follow 1st class, forming the plu- 
ral by becoming li : li, tse are the 
pi. signs. 

2 Ibid. p. 11. 



in.] SICHUAN A LANGUAGE. Ill 

3rd CLASS. 



Particles 0, eo, 0. 
All nouns beginning with a, 
mo, b, mo, a, take as the sign. 
Personal nouns on b, mo, take eo, 
and supplemental. 



Particles e, ba. 
All nouns in a, mo form the 
plural by changing mo into me, and 
have e as their plural sign ; h, mo, 
or personal nouns in mo, form the 
plural by changing mo into ba ; 
foreign words do the same. 



These particles or signs have no less than sixteen uses ; 
in fact they perform the functions of numerous parts of 
speech, indeclinable in this language, but declinable in most 
others. 

These uses are: — 

I. Sichuana nouns being indeclinable, these particles 
alone undergo the changes which express the oblique cases. 
Ex: tiho ea mothu, work of man; mothu oa tiho, man of 
work, &C 1 . 

II. The first thing which strikes an European on 
opening a Sichuana book is the reduplication of the parti- 
cles. The sign repeated twice is used exactly as 6 ti 
in Greek, that which ; oti nrXeia-Tov = 6' ti to irXeia-Tov, " that 
which the most." So in Sichuana tiho e e klolu, " work that 
which is great," &c 2 . 

III. When connected with the substantive verb, go le 3 
or go na, to be, reduplication of the particle shews time 
past. Thus: selemo se le monate summer is pleasant; 
selemo se le se le monate, summer was pleasant, &c 3 . 

IV. The signs become pronouns to their respective 
classes of nouns by affixing the syllable na or ona. 

V. They become demonstrative pronouns when fur- 
nished with the affix uo. 

VI. Totality or universality is expressed in reference 
to any of the nouns of which these particles are the signs 

1 Analysis, p. 11. 2 Ibid, p. 11. 3 Ibid, p. 13. 



112 APPENDIX. [sect. 

when the affix otle is applied to them, as Nama eotle, all 
flesh, &C 1 . 

VII. The opposite of totality is expressed by the affix 
pe. The meaning approaches to "any" or "none," thus : — 
ga gona epe, there is not any, &c. 

VIII. Distance from the individual speaking is indi- 
cated by the affix le or la applied to the signs ; as, — litlare 
tsele, trees yonder, &c. 

IX. Present locality of the speaker is expressed by the 
affix ««, applied to the signs enu i tsenu, gonu, yenu, lonu, 
senu, anu, onu, banu. These, however, seem mixed with 
those which take the affix cu, and express property of the 
person present. 

X. General interrogation respecting nouns is expressed 
by beginning the sentence with a, and affixing an (ang) to 
the Signs: — ean? = what? &c. With verbs the ringing n 
is added: o rihilen ? he has done what? &c. 2 

XI. Distributive interrogation is expressed by affixing 
the particle he to the sign : — e, eke, bo bohe, all signify 
which when a question is put respecting any noun, or class 
of nouns ; — nama ehe, which flesh, &c. 

XII. The signs become distributive pronouns by 
affixing the termination fine (ingwe) ; — e, enue, &c. and 
answer to the English each ; if reduplicated, every, and 
every other : — Khomu enue, each ox, or one ox : 

Khomu enue le enue, ox each and each, or 
every ox. 

XIII. Unity or integrity, or the idea of being alone, 
fxovos, solus, is expressed by the affix osi: — as e, eosi, &c. 
Ex. Mari aosi, blood alone, &c. 

XIV. Intensity or ugliness with respect to any noun 
is expressed by the affix be to the Sign as bobe 3 &c. Ex. 
boshula bote, wicked very; mothu eo mabe, man the ugly, 

1 Analysis, p. 14. 2 Ibid. p. 15. 



in.] SICHUANA LANGUAGE. 113 

&c. Beauty is also expressed by inlle, affixed to any sign. 
Ex. mothu o moinlle, a beautiful person, &c. ' 

XV. Entity, or existence, is expressed by the affix 
on ipng), as eofi, liofi, &c. Ex. Mo cotle tse ri eon, things 
all that which exist, or all things in existence. Non- 
existence is expressed by the ga, not, and eo. Ex. gaeo, 
no one. Khomu gaeo, there is no ox. 

XVI. Time when is expressed by the affix re, and ra, 
as ere, lire, &c. Ex. lore lo riha, when ye make, &c. 

This account of the Signs, gives, to a great extent, a 

view of the structure of the language; hence remaining 

remarks can be brief. 

"Many of these have their origin in the 
Nouns. . / , , ■ . 5 

conjugations ; the changes necessary to give 

them the substantive form being effected in the initial and 

terminal portions of the word, while the radical remains 

entire 2 ." 

Personal nouns are formed by prefixing mo, and chang- 
ing the termination into i, thus riha, work ; morihi, worker. 
Hera, to preach ; moreri, a preacher, &c. 3 

All verbs having vocal initials, as a, i, o, u, e, e become 
nouns by changing the initial letter into k, and the terminal 
letter into o. 

Ex. a, aha, to lie = Jcako, falsehood. 
i, ila, to hate = kilo, hatred, &c. 

Other nouns are formed from initial changes too numer- 
ous to mention here 4 . Nouns and personal pronouns are 
formed from any part of the verb. 

A neuter noun is formed by the prefix se, thus ; vera, 
to preach ; thero, a preaching ; or serero, a sermon, &c. 

Nouns derived from the causative conjunction form 
their terminations by sho. Ex. ya, eat; yela, eat for; yesa, 
cause to eat; seyo, food; seyelo, seyeso, something which 
one has been caused to eat, = poison 5 . 

1 Analysis, p. 16. 2 Ibid. p. 31. 3 Ibid. p. 32. 

4 Ibid. p. 31. 5 Ibid. p. 32. 



114 APPENDIX. [sect. 

„ , There is no gender expressed either in 

Genden r *• u «TK 

nouns, pronouns, adjectives, or verbs. Ine 

same particles are applied to the masculine, feminine, and 

neuter ; the same relative pronouns to both sexes. Hence 

the children of Missionaries, in speaking English, apply He 

and Him to both men and women 1 ." 

The genders are known by the addition of certain 
words : — mothu means a person or individual (homo), and 
may be applied to a country, as mothu eo thamaga, the 
individual (country). 

Monona (vir) distinguishes sex, and implies ability. 

All male animals are distinguished by the word tona, 
which when used towards things inanimate invariably 
means large ; Ex. cukuru e tona, a he, or large rhinoceros. 
A man after circumcision is called monona. 

The feminine is expressed by the addition of the word 
ari, or gari. A woman after puberty is called mosari = " one 
who brings forth." 

The genders of animals are known by the terms gari, 
and namagari. Bx. khomu ea pholu, an ox ; khomu e noma- 
gari, a cow, &c. 

Gender is expressed in inanimate things, as in French : 
Ex. leincue ge lo tona, a large or he rock; leincue ge le nam- 
agari, a smaller rock in the vicinity. 

The idea in the native mind is evidently that of large, 
for males, and small, for females ; these latter are invariably 
put in diminutives 2 . 

In the verb neither person nor number is 
distinguishable, except by personal nouns or 
pronouns, and the particles 3 . 

The Sichuana has an absolute, or substantive verb, 
which, like that of the ancient Egyptian, is often expressed 
by the same words which express the absolute noun 4 . 

1 Analysis, p. 17. 2 Ibid. p. 18. 

3 Ibid, p. 19. 4 Ibid. p. 2i. 



in.] SICHUAN A LANGUAGE. 115 

"The absolute verb, or copula, or, in other words, the 
verb which shows simple connection between action and 
agent, is £2 = the personal pronoun /, used demonstratively; 
or le, otherwise the connective conjunction and; and wa, 
otherwise the pronoun me; na, present time ; la, na, past: 
'ntse, perfect. The tenses of the others which are used for 
the verb ''to be" show their tenses too, either by reduplica- 
tion or in their endings. They are preceded by the same 
words as nominatives. A pronoun is thus capable of being 
both a nominative and a verb. Moreover, any one of the 
simple signs of nouns may be used as the verb " to be :" 
Morimo o molemo, God he or the good, viz. God is good ; 
Morimo ki molemo, God's good, meaning God is good; ki 
khomu, it is an ox ; Ida ratoa ki Morimo, I am loved by 
God ; ki Morimo o, o, 'nthatan, 'tis God he, who, me loves = 
it is God who loves me. 1 ' 

The past tenses are expressed by reduplication. Ex. 
ki le motlanka, I am a servant; ki le ki motlanka, I was a 
servant. Time still farther back would be expressed by an 
additional le. Still more distant time is signified by greater 
reduplication. An aorist tense seems to exist. 

Future time is expressed by prefixing //«, which means 
come: ki tla tla, I come come, or I shall come. 

Procession in time is understood by the phrase go tla 
go tsamaea, to come to go = until. 

The potential, optative, infinitive, and imperative moods 
all exist in the language. 

The negative copula, or verb, contains the idea of aver- 
sion, and is used to shew non-connexion between subject 
and predicate. 

The infinitive is the pure root in Sichuana verbs, for it 
is simply predicative, expressing the meaning of the word 
without reference to persons or time : go riha, to do, make, 
or work = ago, egi, actum, &c. 2 

1 Analysis, &c. p. 21. 2 Ibid. p. 25. 

16 



116 APPENDIX. [sect. 

The passive voice is formed by inserting o before the 
terminal a or e of the active. Ex. riha, rihoa am made, &c. 

The absolute form is given to any part of the verb by 
adding the word hela = only ; hi na kela, I am only, &c. 

The term conjugation is used in Sichuan a in the same 
sense as in the Hebrew, viz : to express different forms of 
the same verb ; and not, as in Greek and Latin, to distin- 
guish different classes of verbs from each other by peculiari- 
ties of form and inflexion. 

Dr Livingstone enumerates twelve simple primary con- 
jugations, of which nine are in constant use: also twenty- 
four complex secondary, and four complex ternary conju- 
gations'. 

With reference to the flexibility of these verbs, he says; 
" If any one should perpetrate the feat of writing out a 
Sichuana verb, with all the tenses, persons, moods, voices, 
and probable or possible combinations, it would cover a 
sheet equal to a pretty large table-cloth 2 . 

The independent Personal pronouns preceding noun or 
verb are; 

Singular Plural 

re = We 



H = 


T 


u = 


Thou 


= 


He. 



lo = You 
la = They. 

Personal pronouns are also expressed as suffixes or 
affixes added to nouns or verbs. 

The primitive mode of expressing the personal pronoun 
by means of suffixes is largely employed in this language. 

The possessive pronoun is never put before the noun. 

The only approach to declension in Sichuana nouns and 
pronouns besides the suffix n, occurs in the suffixes ka, and 
kfi. Ex. If a child is addressed, he is spoken to as nuanaka ; 
if spoken of, nuanake ; both meaning my child 3 . 

1 Analysis, pp. 28 — 31. 2 Ibid. p. 30. 3 Ibid. p. 21. 



in.] SIGHtJAFA LANGUAGE. 117 

This language expresses the comparison of adjectives in 
a very quaint way. 

"An attempt at comparison is made by adding the word 
great, great-great, or great, from golu, from gola, to grow: 
selo se se golu, a thing which is great; selo se se golu bogolu, 
a thing which is greater (great-great) ; or it is made by mo, 
go, out, from = than : mothu eo, o mogolu go eole, this man is 
great to the other yonder. 

The superlative is indefinitely represented by reduplica- 
tion, and the addition of such words as thata, strong ; 
mahura, fat; bobe, very; phola, &c. ; mothu eo, o mogolu 
bogolu thata, this man is great-great strongly. 

The word kholu, which is nearly the same as golu, great, 
imparts the idea of old age: mothu eo hholugolu, an ancient 
man; babogolugolu, the ancients 1 ." 

The question of Numerals being so interesting to all 
readers, as well as methods of counting, I feel constrained 
to quote the following passage from pp. 36, 37, of the 
Analysis; 

"Numerals. — Each numeral takes the sign of the noun 
counted, thus: mothu monue hela, one man; khomu enue 
hela (hela meaning only). Then all the other plurals, ba, 
li, me, ma, &e. Hence, when specimens of the numerals 
have been furnished, philologists have been misled by the 
signs and radicals being mixed together. When men are 
counted the signs mo and ba are used. When the fingers 
are counted the signs mo and me are used — from movuana, 
finger; menuana, fingers. The people always begin with 
the little finger of the left hand: the under finger of 
the right hand is named shupa, the verb to show or 
point out, and indicates number 7. In counting S the 
little and ring fingers of the right hand are folded 
down ; hence 8 is called hera menuana meheri, or fold down 
two fingers; and 9 fold down one finger: 11 is 10 and one 
1 Analysis, p. 18. 

16—2 



118 



APPENDIX. 



[sect. 



over. We given a specimen of the fingers counted but not 
expressed. 



?/ioiiue hela. 
meberi. 

meraru. 

raenne. 

metlanu. 

merataru. 

meshupa. 



Oxen khoniu. 
i . eiiue hela. 

2. foperi. 

3. Zitaru. 

4. forme. 

5. Titian u. 

6. fotataru. 

7. foshupa. 

8. fohera meberi. 
o. fo'hera ?>ionue hela. 



12 



10. fo'shume. 

1 1. shume le a coa ka fiiue hela. 
shume le a coa ka Ztperi. 
goiiue hela, once, 
gaberi, twice, 
gararu, thrice, &c. 
loa bonne, fourth time, 
loa botlanu, fifth time. 

loa borataru, sixth time. 



8. herameberi. 

9. hera monue hela. 

10. me shume. 

11. shume le a coa ka eiiue hela. 

hela. 

11. shume le a coa ka meberi. 

12. shume le a coa ka meraru, &c. 
10. leshume lenue hela, one ten. 
20. mashume maberi, two tens. 
30. mashume mararu, &c. 

100. shume ye le golu, the great 

ten, viz. 100. 
200. mashumemagolu maberi, two 

great tens, 200. I 

" Large numbers are indicated by the repetition of intsi, 
bontsi, many; bontsintsi, crowds, swarms. Lintsi means 
fiies; the idea may have arisen from swarms of these. 
They have no very definite idea of thousands, but one 
thousand is easily counted as ten great tens: many figures 
are used to denote multitudes, Kana ka boyan, like the 
grass ; kana ka linaleri, like the stars ; kana ka tsie, like to 
the locusts. They have also a plural in ma, which denotes 
many ; thus : nari, a buffalo ; linari, buffaloes ; manari, 
many buffaloes. The native way of counting is so prolix 
that missionaries have resolved to introduce the English 
numerals, and they are readily adopted. The prolixity of 
Sech uana may be understood when it is known that the 
number 88 requires the whole of the following words : 



in.] SICHUAN A LANGUAGE. 119 

mashume a her a menuana meberi le a coa ha go hera men- 
uana meberi. The people who live on the Zambesi make 
counting still more complicated by counting in fives, viz. 
five of left hand, five of right hand, five of left foot, five of 
right foot ; so that it soon becomes so long in the description 
there is no following it." 

Those who speak this language have a curious custom 
of putting Ma and Ra before the name of the eldest son, 
and of calling his parents by these newly compounded names 
respectively. Thus they call Mrs Livingstone Ma-Robert, 
i. e. the mother of Robert. They would call the father of 
Sekeletu, if he were alive, ci Ra-Sekeletu." 

A little attention to the following rules will enable 
the reader to pronounce accurately any of the difficult 
words occurring in the book of Travels. 

The best way is to compare the language with our 
own; calling in the aid of any others with which w r e 
may be acquainted whereby to supply rules on points 
wherein the English may fail. 

All the vowels are sounded in Sichuana, for example 
the final e, which is a point of difference from our own. 
Probably the best rule to follow for pronunciation is that of 
the Italian, even including £, giving to n the ringing sound 
of the Spanish n; or putting an i before it, as ing. 

In the following table, compiled from that of Dr Living- 
stone 1 , combined with some remarks of Mr Moffat's 2 , for 
the sake of brevity, those letters or diphthongs are 
only noticed which differ in sound from our own: those 
which are not here particularized can be read as the 
English. 

C, sounded as ch, in Church. Ex. caha (chaka) a battle 
axe. Cisa (cheesa) to cause to dry up or burn. 

1 Analysis, pp. 6 — 8. 

2 Missionary Scenes and Labours, &c. p. 216, note. 



120 APPENDIX. [sect. 

e, with acute accent, as in clerical, friend, lemon. Ex. 
Seka to judge ; reka, to buy. 

/, softer than the English f ; like « in vat. 

g, guttural, as ch in loch (Scottice) dag (Dutch) - Greek 
X. Ex. gana, to refuse; gapa, to "lift" cattle; goga, to 
draw. There is no hard g in Sichuana. 

h, is always a Spiritus Asper, never forms / with p 
as in English ; when joined to another consonant, the 
latter is enunciated with a hard breathing only. Ex. 
pkare, a cucumber = nrape ; thogo, a curse. 

i, as in diminish, or as English e in peep, or German 
sieben. Ex. pit.se> a zebra; kika, a mortar; pino, a dance; 
pico, an assembly. 

&, as in English, k in Greek. Ex. kapa, to catch with 
the hands (Scottice kep). Kh is the k strongly aspirated, 
as in khakala, far ; kopa, to beg ; khopa, to stumble. 

n, with circumflex over it, = Spanish », sounds as ing in 
king, ring ; only in Sichuana it sometimes forms the initial 
sound of words: man eo ? (mang eo), what is this? (comp. 
man hoo in Hebrew) ; nonola, to deride ; napa, to pinch ; 
nonorega, to grumble. 

t, soft, and th aspirated; soft as in tool, tin; when 
written with h, as th, the breath is forcibly expelled from 
the mouth, while the teeth are held in the position for say- 
ing t. It is never sounded as 6 in Sichuana. Attention to 
the aspirates is of vital importance in the correct enuncia- 
tion of Sichuana. Ex. rata, to teach ; rulha, to beat or 
thrash. 

ae, as English i, in high, lie. Ex. tsamaea (tsama, a 
staff; ea go), go or travel; bolaea, to kill; apaea (apia), to 
cook. 

oe, and tie, as wa in wait. Ex. cela (u-eyld), to fall 
towards; netsa, to finish; ce and ue, as terminals, as que 
in English, Ex. leshue, filthy ; senkhue, bread (singqae). 

is, as Hebrew tsaddai, ^. Ex. tsela, live, pour, or ford a 



in.] SIGHUANA' LANG UAGE. 1 2 1 

river, also a path; tsaro, a d ate- tree ; tsaea, take; tsasa, 
smear. 

tl, the / in this combination is aspirated, and the I pro- 
nounced at the same time. Insert t instead of k in klick, 
and the tl sound is easily pronounced. Ex. tla, come and 
shall ; ki tla tla, I shall come. 

To apply these rules to some of the proper names 
occurring in the book of Travels. 

'Ngami = ingahmee. 
Chiboque — Cheebokwa. 

Shinte == Sheenta. 
Sekeletu = Sekelatu. 
Sebituane = Sebetuahna. 
Sichuana, Bechuana, and Sechele, would, according to 
the above rules, be Setchuahna, Betchuahnah, and Setchala ; 
but in pronouncing them himself our traveller rather gave 
ch a k sound. These may be exceptions. 

All words in this language end in a vowel, except a 
few in n. The emphasis is always put on the penulti- 
mate, except in words ending in ri; in these the ultimate 
receives the emphasis. In sentences the last word generally 
has the emphasis 1 . 

IMPORTANCE OF THE SICHUANA LANGUAGE. 

It would be difficult to overrate this. Sebituane's con- 
quests have made it both the common vernacular and 
court language among the tribes of a large part of central 
South Africa. 

In addition to this it is understood more or less by 
the members of the whole of the great Bechuana family 
of tribes. Dr Livingstone shews this at page 1 of the 
Analysis as follows; 

" There exists the closest relationship between this 
1 Analysis, p. 9. 



122 APPENDIX. [sect. 

primitive and almost perfect South African language and 
the dialects spoken by the Caffres, Zulu, Matebele, Malo- 
kuane, and Basuto. Indeed, the structure of all these is 
essentially the same. The Bakhoba or Bayeiye of Lake 
Ngami; the Bashubea, Barotse, and Batoka of the Leeam- 
bye or Zambesi ; the Bashukulompo, who live far to the 
north-east of that river ; and the Balojazi, who inhabit 
countries far to the north-west of S. lat. 14°; with the 
Bamoenye, Ambonda, Banyenko, Balonda, &c. &c., all 
speak dialects which contain nearly as many Sechuana 
roots as the English does of Latin. The list of words fur- 
nished by Captain Tuckey in his ' Voyage up the Zaire or 
Congo River,' and the communications of the missionaries 
in the country adjacent to Mombas, with vocabularies fur- 
nished by the Baptist and Church missionaries at Fernando 
Po and the West Coast, render it almost certain that the 
groundwork of all south equatorial African tongues, except 
the Bush or Hottentot, is of the same family as that 
under consideration." 

In a commercial, scientific, and philological point of 
view, this statement is of vast importance, but transcend- 
entally so when considered with reference to morals, 
philanthropy, and religion. It affords a key to active in- 
tercourse with the inhabitants of the Southern half of the 
Continent. 

We must connect the facts of this language being 
cognate with so many South African dialects, and of its 
present wide diffusion, with another great fact providen- 
tially furnishing a link in the complete chain wanted for 
successful permanent missionary work. 

Independently of Sebituane's conquests, and of Dr 
Livingstone's explorations, Mr Moffat has translated the 
whole Scriptures into this language. This translation has 
secured a large number of words which would otherwise 
have been lost. 



in.] S1CIIUANA LANGUAGE. 123 

Both he and Dr Livingstone speak admiringly of the 
extraordinary copiousness of this language. The latter says 
on this point, u Some idea may be formed of the comparative 
capacities of expression of Greek, Sechuana, and English, 
from the fact that the Septuagint version of the Pentateuch 
contains about 140,000 words, the Sechuana 156,000, and 
the English about 182,000 words. One word in Sechuana 
often expresses seven or eight in English 1 ." 

Although possessing great ductility, and a prodigious 
number of flexions and combinations, this language has a 
great redundancy of words for expressing ideas on many 
topics — at least twenty for designating different ways of 
walking — many for various stages of eating, as also for a 
fool. In reference to the affections, as centered in the heart, 
there is literally a cloud of expressions — from these the 
following are selected : 

pelti e cueu, a white heart = satisfied, well-pleased, 
pelu e encu, a black heart = dark, designing. 
pelu e segoe, a noosed heart = ensnaring, swindling. 
pelu peri, two hearts = double-hearted, two-faced. 
pelu tsari, a she heart = tender-hearted, kind. 
go na le pelu, to be with heart, to have a heart = to be gene- 
rous 2 , &c. 

With all this flexibility and copiousness, this language 
was found by missionaries to have a deficiency which pain- 
fully smites the soul of the true child of God. Let our 
traveller himself make the startling statement : " The ideas 
of holiness, salvation &c, were not in the language till 
introduced by missionaries. In droughts everything looks 
shrivelled and wretched; but after a fine fall of rain the 
earth is refreshed, the cattle are clean, the sun glances 
gloriously on the young green leaves, and everything looks 
gladsome. This change is indicated by the term tsepho, and 

1 Analysis, p. 6, note, 2 Ibid. p. 5. 



124 APPENDIX. [sect. 

has been adopted as a ready means of explaining the healing 
change from sin to holiness 1 ." 

Are not missionaries wanted among such a people ? 

Many who assert the former, do not declare 

The African ,,'„"■, , , -. ■> -. -, , i 

not naturally the latter. Perhaps the slave-holder and dealer 

inferior in in- a l one sav that he is a mere animal without a 
tellectual and _ T . . , „ 

spiritual en- soul. It is almost unnecessary to contend for 

dowments to the possession of the immortal spark, and for 
tion of theTu- a P arta king of the covenant of grace by our 
man family. brother ; but for the other position it is neces- 
sary to strive. 

In answer to objectors, we would say, Were not the 
ancient Egyptians true negroes? They were the masters of 
the civilization of the world. When Greece was just emerg- 
ing from the shades of barbarism, and before the name of 
Rome was known, this negro-land of Mizraim was proficient 
in science and art, and Thebes the wonder-city of the world. 
Solon, Plato, and a host of our Greek and Roman intellec- 
tual masters, confess their obligations to that stupendous 
" learning of the Egyptians" in which Moses was so apt and 
able a scholar ; notwithstanding, too often does the white 
man of the present day undervalue the humble descendant 
of that giant who helped to make him what he is ! 

Were there no native African Bishops of the early 
Church, who shewed such intellect, piety, zeal, and activity 
for the cause of good, as even to influence the creeds and 
formularies of the West? Who was Cyprian, and who was 
Augustine? Some of these Bishops shewed mighty intellect 
for evil, as well as good. Who was Tertullian ? 

Some of the opponents and allies of redoubtable Rome 
Pagan were no mean warriors : Who was Masinissa, who 
Jugurtha, and who was Syphax ? 

Toussainte L'Ouverture, a pure African, was a trouble- 
some opponent of the elder Napoleon in St Domingo. 
1 Analysis, p. 39, note. 



in.] MORAL AND RELIGIOUS ASPECT. V>~> 

The native orators of the present day shew good speak- 
ing talent : as well as no small amount of common sense, 
and intellectual ability. 

What the African wants is education — elevation — fair 
treatment, and, emphatically, Christianity: with these, he 
will soon outshine many who now look down proudly on 
him. 

Section IV. — Dr Livingstone s labours, explorations, and 
discoveries considered as to their extent and results in 
their Moral and Religious Aspect. 

"For the day of the Lord is near upon all the heathen." — Obad. 15. 
" And the leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations."— 
Eev. xxii. 2. 

In this concluding portion of our little volume it will be 
well to review the Missionary bearing of the solution of the 
great central South African problem. Man is the most 
important object of our solicitude, whenever we want one 
whereon to exercise our talents and benevolence. He pos- 
sesses an immortal soul to be saved or lost. In this point 
of view our traveller's labours and discoveries assume pro- 
portions at once solemn, gigantic, and unspeakably import- 
ant. Science, philosophy, literature and art all pale their 
splendours and lose their worth when weighed in the 
balances with the human soul. Other branches of our race 
are now introduced to us. We are, and ought to be, anxious 
about their moral and spiritual state ; these being topics of 
eternal interest. 

In this Section the best course to adopt appears to be, 
that of trying to produce a conviction of the need of Christian 
training and instruction among these Africans ; and then to 
shew what has been already done — what is being effected — 
and what remains to be accomplished in these regions, with 
reference to such training and instruction. 



126 APPENDIX. [sect. 



The present Moral Condition of the Natives of South 
Africa. 

"For the dark places of the earth are full of the habitations of 
cruelty." — Ps. lxxiv. 20. 

"They became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart 
was darkened." — Rom. i. 21. 

Real heathenism is the same in principle and practice in 
every age and country of the world. We have had an ap- 
palling spectacle and realization of these in the late Sepoy 
atrocities in India ; and in some revolting episodes of the 
Chinese war. 

The picture of heathen faith and practice given by St 
Paul, in Rom. i. ; and iii. 10 — 18, applies with equally for- 
cible truth to the heathen in the present day, as it did to 
the Greeks and Romans of his own. With reference to 
South Africa, there might be this difference, that its native 
inhabitants are uncivilized, while those to whom the Apostle 
refers were highly cultivated as to intellect and the arts of 
life. But whatever differences exist as to outward con- 
dition, yet spiritually speaking, all heathen are dark, and 
utterly alienated from God. 

Missionaries and others returning from India tell us of 
the painfully exciting and yet deadening influence of hea- 
thenism on the soul. Dr Livingstone, after his nine weeks 
tour with Sekeletu, although he was treated by all with 
great kindness and consideration, thus speaks of such in- 
tercourse : " Yet to endure the dancing, roaring and sing- 
ing, the jesting, anecdotes, grumbling, quarrelling and 
murdering of these children of nature, seemed more like a 
severe penance than anything I had before met with in the 
course of my missionary duties. I took thence a more in- 
tense disgust at heathenism than I had before, and formed 
a greatly elevated opinion of the latent effects of missions 



iv.] MORAL CONDITION. 127 

in the south, among tribes which are reported to have been 
as savage as the Makololo 1 ." 

In another place he says : " But amidst all the beauty 
and loveliness with which we are surrounded, there is still 
a feeling of want in the soul in viewing one's poor com- 
panions, and hearing bitter impure words jarring on the 
ear in the perfection of the scenes of nature, and a longing 
that both their hearts and ours might be brought into har- 
mony with the Great Father of Spirits 2 ." 

Such portraits are painful to contemplate. 

The life of God in the soul, purity of thought and man- 
ners, together with the bringing forth of the fruits of the 
Spirit, are never exhibited in any except Christian countries, 
whatever the dark side of these countries may be. 

The question of the moral sense is not to 

Their blunt- ^ e discussed here : nevertheless much can be 
ed moral per- 
ceptions, and gathered both for and against it from Dr 

degraded man- Livingstone's narrative. 

ners and cus- ° . 

tomg# We rind even public morality in some cases 

at a very low ebb; Dr Livingstone tells us that 

there is not even a public opinion of purity and decency. 

He states that among the Makololo all the women, married 

and single, are expected to be, and are, at the call of the 

chief; likewise that a female chieftain regards each man of 

her clan as her quasi-husband; and that such is the case 

with most other tribes, as well as the practice of polygamy. 

Some of the Balonda and Barotse tribes are an honourable 

exception in the treatment of their women. 

The Makololo use most awful language; swearing, curs- 
ing and obscene expressions being their delight. They 
are not only foul-mouthed, but but also very dirty in their 
habits and persons. 

As far as dress is concerned, most of the people have 
but little; while murder and the grossest of crimes, often go 
1 Travels, p. 226. a Ibid. p. 259. 



128 APPENDIX. [sect. 

unpunished. With vast numbers the ideas of common hon- 
esty, public law, private duty, and proper obligation between 
man and man, are, to a great extent, in abeyance. Sekomi, 
a Bechuana chief, tried to palliate an act of extortion by- 
shewing that it was not swindling 1 . On one occasion our 
traveller concluded that an old Bushman had no con- 
ception of morality whatever. He says of him "When 
his heart was warmed by our presents of meat, he sat by 
the fire relating his early adventures: among these was his 
killing five other Bushmen. 'Two/ said he, counting on his 
fingers, ' were females, one a male, and the other two calves.' 
— • What a villain you are to boast of killing women and 
children of your own nation ! what will God say when you 
appear before him?' — 'He will say/ replied he, 'that I was 
a very clever fellow.' This man now appeared to me as 
without any conscience, and, of course, responsibility, but, 
on trying to enlighten him by further conversation, I dis- 
covered that, though he was employing the word which is 
used among the Bakwains when speaking of the Deity, he 
had only the idea of a chief, and was all the while referring 
to Sekomi, while his victims were a party of rebel Bushmen 
against whom he had been sent 2 ." 

Dr Burchell informs us that the Batlapis view murder 
with perfect indifference. Mr Moffat adds that during his 
stay among these people a man killed his wife in a rage. 
Remarking of this crime, "When I endeavoured to repre- 
sent to the chiefs, with whom I was familiar, as old ac- 
quaintance, the magnitude of such crimes, they laughed, I 
might say inordinately, at the horror I felt for the murder 
of a woman by her own husband 3 ." 

The Bushmen and Bakalahari are unspeakably degraded ; 
making the beasts of the field their companions, they are 
become almost assimilated to them in their every-day life. 

1 Travels, p. 146. 2 Ibid. p. 159. 

3 Missionary Labours, &c. p. 465. 



iv.] MORAL CONDITION. 129 

Tattooing is universally practised among these tribes : 
drunkenness prevails to a great extent in Angola, and is 
not unknown in the interior. 

Mr Moffat, in the account of his visit to Moselekatse, 
chief of the Matebele, thus graphically describes one of that 
monarch's feasts : " The bloody bowl was the portion of 
those who could count the tens they had slain in the day of 
battle. One evening two men bore towards me an enormous 
basket. It was the royal dish sent from the presence of his 
majesty. The contents, smoking blood, apparently as liquid 
as if it had just come from the arteries of the ox, and mixed 
with sausages of suet. I acknowledged the honour he 
wished to confer, but begged to be excused so lordly a dish, 
as I never ate blood when I could get anything else. This 
refusal gave perfect satisfaction, when the whole breast of 
an ox, well stewed, was immediately sent in its place. As 
nothing can be returned, the bearers of the smoking pre- 
sent, and others who were standing round it, had scarcely 
heard that they might do what they pleased with it, when 
they rushed upon it, scooping it up with their hands, mak- 
ing a noise equal to a dozen hungry hogs around a well- 
filled trough 1 ." 

The Mambari and some other tribes, eat the most dis- 
gusting food, such as mice, moles, &c. 

Respecting the Makololo, Dr Livingstone gives the fol- 
lowing account of their moral state: "They do not attempt 
to hide the evil, as men often do, from their spiritual in- 
structors; but I have found it difficult to come to a con- 
clusion on their character. They sometimes perform actions 
remarkably good, and sometimes as strangely the opposite. 
I have been unable to ascertain the motive for the good, or 
account for the callousness of conscience with which they 
perpetrate the bad. After long observation, I came to the 
conclusion that they are just such a strange mixture of good 
1 Missionary Labours, &c. p. 553. 



130 APPENDIX. [sect. 

and evil, as men are everywhere else 1 ." He goes on to 
speak of the rich being kind to the poor in expectation of 
services ; and of the sick poor being left to starve, and then 
to lie unburied. 

In Mr Moffat's book there are more terrible 
Their cruelty . 
and waut of pictures or native cruelty than in that of Dr 
natural affec- Livingstone. 

In a battle between the Mantatees and the 
Bechuanas, witnessed by Mr Moffat, he tells us of the 
wounded warriors, and the women and children, of the 
former tribe, being killed by the men of the latter, in cold 
blood. On the one hand he saw the living babe in the arms 
of its dead mother, or the dead infant in those of its living 
mother: and, on the other hand, he beheld the mutilation 
of captives, together with mothers and children rolled in 
blood 2 ! 

The following is a picture of Batlapi cruelty, practised 
against their Mantatee invaders: "The wounded enemy 
they baited with their stones, clubs, and spears, accom- 
panied with yellings and countenances indicative of fiendish 
joy. The hapless women found no quarter, especially if 
they possessed anything like ornaments to tempt the cupi- 
dity of their plunderers. A few copper rings round the 
neck, from which it was difficult to take them, was the 
signal for the already uplifted battle-axe to sever the head 
from the trunk, or the arm from the body, when the plun- 
derer would grasp with a smile his bleeding trophies. 
Others, in order to be able to return home with the triumph 
of victors, would pursue the screaming boy or girl, and not 
satisfied with severing a limb from the human frame, would 
exhibit their contempt for the victims of their cruel revenge, 
by seizing the head, and hurling it from them, or kicking it 
to a distance 3 ." 

1 Travels, p. 510. 2 Missionary Labours, &c. p. 361, &c. 

3 Ibid. p. 369. 



iv.] MORAL CONDITION. 131 

The march of these Mantatees for hundreds of miles 
might have been traced by human bones. 

He met with the custom in Namaqua-land, of the parri- 
cide of parents by their children, when too old to do any- 
thing; leaving them to starve in the desert. He once fell 
in with a mother so abandoned 1 . 

Of the cruelty practised by the Matabele against the 
Bakone tribes, the following eloquent account was given by 
one of the latter, to Mr Moffat, in answer to an inquiry 
about some ruins, which he saw scattered over a plain in 
the neighbourhood of the Moselekatse's capital. The com- 
mencement of this native's speech states that he himself 
beheld the disaster — that this was the home of the chief of 
the blue-coloured cattle, whose people were numerous and 
brave — going on to say : " The noise of their song was 
hushed in night, and their hearts were filled with dismay. 
They saw the clouds ascend from the plains. It was the 
smoke of burning towns. The confusion of a whirlwind 
was in the heart of the great chief of the blue-coloured 
cattle. The shout was raised, ' They are friends;' but they 
shouted again, ' They are foes,' till their near approach pro- 
claimed them naked Matabele. The men seized their arms, 
and rushed out, as if to chase the antelope. The onset was 
as the voice of lightning, and their spears as the shaking of 
a forest in the autumn storm. The Matabele lions raised 
the shout of death, and flew upon their victims. It was 
the shout of victory. Their hissing and hollow groans told 
their progress among the dead. A few moments laid hun- 
dreds on the ground. The clash of shields was the signal 
of triumph. Our people fled with their cattle to the top of 
yonder mount. The Matabele entered the town with the 
roar of the lion ; they pillaged and fired the houses, speared 
the mothers, and cast their infants to the flames. The sun 
went down. The victors emerged from the smoking plain, 
1 Missionary Labours, &c. p. 133. 

17 



132 APPENDIX. [sect. 

and pursued their course, surrounding the base of yonder 
hill. They slaughtered cattle ; they danced and sang till 
the dawn of day ; they ascended, and killed till their hands 
were weary of the spear '." 

In the following passage the missionary gives a terrible 
picture of Matabele warfare: " The Matabele were not 
satisfied with simply capturing cattle ; nothing less than the 
entire subjugation or destruction of the vanquished could 
quench their insatiable thirst for power. Thus when they 
conquered a town, the terrified inhabitants were driven in a 
mass to the outskirts, when the parents and all the married 
women were slaughtered on the spot. Such as dared to be 
brave in the defence of their town, their wives and their 
children, are reserved for a still more terrible death ; dry 
grass, saturated with fat, is tied round their naked bodies, 
and then set on fire. The youths and girls are loaded as 
beasts of burden with the spoils of the town, to be marched 
to the homes of their victors. If the town be in an isolated 
position, the helpless infants are either left to perish with 
hunger or to be devoured by beasts of prey. On such an 
event, the lions scent the slain and leave their lair. The 
hyenas and jackals emerge from their lurkingplaces in 
broad day, and revel in the carnage, while a cloud of 
vultures may be seen descending on the living and the 
dead, and holding a carnival on human flesh. Should a 
suspicion arise in the savage bosom that those helpless in- 
nocents may fall into the hands of friends, they will prevent 
this by collecting them into a fold, and after raising over 
them a pile of brushwood, apply the flaming torch to it, 
when the town, but lately the scene of mirth, becomes a 
heap of ashes 2 ." 

Among the Bushmen, if a mother dies, leaving an in- 
fant, this is often buried alive with her. Infanticide is com- 
mon among these people. 

1 Missionary Labours, &c. p. 528. 2 Ibid. p. 555. 



iv.] RELIGIOUS STATE. 133 

Dr Livingstone tells us of a Bechuana woman at Mabotsa, 
who murdered her Albino son, because her husband refused 
to live with her; she went unpunished by the authorities 1 . 

He further informs us of a slave-girl being allowed to 
starve by her master, because his crop had failed : also of a 
boy being likewise left to the same fate 2 . 

These statements are not made either from a morbid 
love of feasting on the terrible, or of painting the dark side 
of human nature; but to prove how necessary it is for the 
Gospel to be made known among such benighted people, in 
order that it may transform them in the spirit of their minds, 
and cause them truly to abandon such Satanic practices. 

We know that heathenism has its bright side ; and that 
heathen men and women oftentimes exhibit the noblest 
traits of character, as well as practise the kindliest of the 
virtues. But be it remembered that this is the exception, 
and not the rule. Conscience may sometimes work, and 
the soul may occasionally aspire after higher and better 
things. Kindness, affection, and even justice may some- 
times govern for a time, but these do not affect the main 
current, which is corrupt and poisonous. Whatever may be 
the sins of omission and of commission of Christian lands, 
these, in the main, are not to be compared in frequency 
and enormity with those of heathen countries, in which the 
best side of the question is almost entirely wanting. 

The present Religious State of the Natives of South Africa. 

"And he said unto me, Son of man, can these bones live ] And I 
answei'ed, O Lord God, thou knowest." — Ezekiel xxxvii. 3. 

"And the times of this ignorance God winked at ; but now coni- 
mandeth all men every where to repent." — Acts xvii. 30. 

The best way in which to understand a person's need, is 
to know his state. We have just reviewed the cruelty of 

1 Travels, p. 576. 2 Ibid. p. ;ir. 

17—2 



134 APPENDIX. [sect. 

the inhabitants of these dark places of the earth ; and now 
we contemplate their spiritual gloom. 

There are some very striking facts connected with the 
religious condition of the tribes of the South African con- 
tinent. This is likewise to be regarded in a twofold aspect. 
Those in the south are not idolaters ; whilst those farther 
north are so. Then, again, the tribes in the south have 
their rain-doctors, to make the rain ; and those in the 
north have theirs to prevent its falling. The people of 
the south have no external worship, and hence are some- 
times wrongly regarded as infidels, while those of the 
north are more prone to worship, and have outward rites. 
These latter have also somewhat the brighter religious 
perceptions. 

m . , On this subject authorities are somewhat at 

The ideas of . 

God entertain- issue. In the estimation of some persons, 

ed by the South m any Africans have no idea whatever of a 

African tribes, _, _, . . . . 

tooether with Supreme Being; according to the statements 

their worship f others, all have some such an idea. 

of Morimo and „ , . . , , , 

Barimo. Doubtless savages in general are thorough 

sensualists ; still the spirit, within bears witness 

by its own promptings, longings and activity, of a something 

and a some one beyond what sense can see or feel. 

From long intercourse and observation, perhaps, Mr 
Moffat and Dr Livingstone are the best authorities on the 
subject. Their experiences and conclusions are evidently 
different. 

Mr Moffat says of the Bechuanas, Hottentots and Bush- 
men, that he believes Satan to have erased every vestige of 
religious impression from their minds. Concerning the 
Bechuanas, he remarks: "To tell them, the gravest of 
them, that there was a Creator, the Governor of the hea- 
vens and earth, — of the fall of man, or the redemption of 
the world, the resurrection of the dead, and immortality 
beyond the grave, was to tell them what appeared to be 



iv.] RELIGIOUS STATE. 135 

more fabulous, extravagant and ludicrous than their own 
vain stories about lions, hyenas and jackals'." 

He found no legends, or altars, or unknown Gods, to 
appeal to in their case. They "look on the sun with the 
eyes of an ox." Yet these people are acute reasoners, and 
minute observers of men and manners. 

Dr Vanderkemp long before asserted his view of the 
Atheism of some South Africans, saying of the Kafirs that 
he never could perceive that they had any religion or idea 
of the existence of a God. 

Mr Moffat says both of the Hottentots and Nam aquas, 
that they have no word in their language expressing the 
conception of Deity 2 . Neither could he find any innate 
ideas of a Divine Being in the minds of the savages. They 
say that their old men knew of God, but that they them- 
selves have not been taught concerning Him. One chief, 
lamenting that so wise a man as the missionary should vend 
such fables for truth, said to his people around him, — 
pointing to Mr Moffat, — " e There is Ra-Mary (father of 
Mary), who tells me, that the heavens w r ere made, the 
earth also, by a beginner, whom he calls Morimo. Have 
you ever heard anything to be compared with this ? He 
says that the sun rises and sets by the power of Morimo ; 
as alst) that Morimo causes winter to follow summer, the 
winds to blow, the rain to fall, the grass to grow, and the 
trees to bud;' and casting his arm above and around him, 
added, ' God works in everything you see or hear! Did 
you ever hear such words ?' Seeing them ready to burst 
into laughter, he said, ' Wait, I shall tell you more : Ra- 
Mary tells me that we have spirits in us which will never 
die ; and that our bodies, though dead and buried, will rise 
and live again. Open your ears to-day ; did you ever hear 
litlamane (fables) like these?' This was followed by a 

1 Missionary Labours, p. 245. 2 Ibid. p. 257. 



136 APPENDIX. [sect. 

burst of deafening laughter, and on its partially subsiding, 
the chief man begged me to say no more on such trifles, 
lest the people should think me mad 1 !" 

Native converts have positively declared to Mr Moffat, 
after conversion, that they had no notion of a God until he 
taught them. 

Dr Livingstone generally found a more or less clear 
acknowledgment of the being, power, and eternity of God, 
among the natives, and especially among the more intel- 
lectual of the newly discovered tribes. 

He says of the Bakwains, that their most intelligent men 
scouted the idea of any of them ever having been without 
tolerably correct ideas about good, evil, a future state and 
God. Of these people he adds: "There is no necessity for 
beginning to tell even the most degraded of these people of 
the existence of a God, or of a future state, the facts being 
universally admitted. Everything that cannot be accounted 
for by common causes is ascribed to the Deity, as creation, 
sudden death, &c. ' How curiously God made these things!' 
is a common expression ; as is also, ' He was not killed by 
disease, he was killed by God/ And, when speaking of 
the departed — though there is nought in the physical ap- 
pearance of the dead to justify the expression — they say, 
1 He has gone to the gods,' the phrase being identical with 
1 abiit ad plures 2 .'" 

Despite the individual cases of pure atheism found 
among the heathen by travellers and missionaries, yet these 
cases do not disprove the existence of a moral sense or 
natural conscience in the whole body of the heathen. How- 
ever dark may be the spiritual perceptions of any tribe of 
men, still there exists a "feeling after God" in the soul 
endued with immortal promptings. St Paul decidedly 
teaches this view in Rom. i. 20; and especially so in ch. ii. 
14, 15 ; a passage well-known among scholars as the basis 
1 Missionary Labours, pp. 267, 268. 2 Travels, p. 158. 



iv.] RELIGIO US ST A TK. 1 37 

of one of Bishop Butler's masterly sermons on Human 
Nature. 

Our traveller accounts for Caffres and Bushmen appear- 
ing so Godless, from their want of reverence even for what 
they know to be holy and true, and from their being de- 
stitute of any form of public worship, or of idols, or of 
formal prayer and sacrifices 1 . 

In the dialogue between the medical doctor and the 
rain-doctor, the latter acknowledges the being of God, but 
accuses him with favouring unfairly the white man in com- 
parison with the black, saying that he has "no heart" to- 
wards the negro 2 . 

Senhor Candido, the Portuguese judge among the natives 
on the east coast, told our traveller that the natives of this 
region have clear ideas of a Supreme Being, the maker and 
governor of all things, whom they call "Morimo," u Mo- 
lunga," "Reza," "Mpambe," in the different dialects spoken. 
In undergoing the ordeal they lift up their hands towards 
heaven, calling on God to witness their innocence. The 
Barotse name Him " Nyampi," and the Balonda " Zambi 3 ." 

The tribes in the neighbourhood of the Victoria falls 
call the rainbow formed by their vapour, " motse oa ba- 
rium," " the pestle of the gods." On this our traveller 
beautifully remarks — although they could not understand 
and imitate his true character : — " Here they could approach 
the emblem, and see it stand steadily above the blustering 
uproar below — a type of Him who sits supreme — alone un- 
changeable, though ruling over all changing things 4 ." 

It appears that most of the South Africans have vague 
ideas about the Morimo and Barimo as objects of worship ; 
some of the tribes regarding them as invisible, mighty, and 
immortal beings. 

Although the missionaries have adopted the word 

1 Travels, p. 158. 3 Ibid. p. •24. 

3 Ibid. p. 641. 4 Ibid. p. 524. 



138 APPENDIX. [sect. 

Morimo for the name of the true God, yet. according to 
Mr Moffat, the natives themselves never previously used it 
in such a sense. They considered it to represent a malevo- 
lent Selo, or thing, existing in a hole ; describing it as some- 
thing cunning or malicious, but few attributing to it any 
power, and none granting it eternity of existence. Some 
people in the south say that Morimo came out of a cave in 
the Bakone country, leaving its footprints on the rock ; 
others assert it to be a noxious reptile. 

Barimo is an answer to the question u Where do men go 
when they die ?" but heaven is not its meaning. It does 
not convey to the Bechuana mind the idea of a person or 
persons, but of a state or disease, that of being bewitched. 
These people call a person who may be delirious or in a 
fit " Barimo," = liriti, shades or manes of the dead. Going 
to Barimo signifies among them, passing onward, not to im- 
mortality, but to death 1 . 

The tribes in the north have more definite ideas about 
these objects of worship, regarding them as departed spirits. 
In this sense the diviners of Angola pretend to hold com- 
munication with them ; a sect is reported to exist in this 
country who are said to kill men in order to present their 
hearts as offerings to the departed spirits. 

At funerals the Balonda beat drums in order to lay the 
Barimo asleep ; on like occasions, a man fantastically dressed 
runs, like a scape-goat, into the woods, as a representative 
of these imaginary deities. On our traveller inquiring of 
one of his men, on one occasion, if the halo round the sun 
did not betoken rain, the man replied "O no, it is the 
Barimo (gods, or departed spirits), who have called a picho; 
don't you see they have the Lord (sun) in the centre 2 ?" 

The conclusion to be arrived at is, that most of the 
South African tribes have more or less clear idea of a 

1 Moffat's Missionary Labours, p. 261. 
3 Travels, p. 220. 



iv.] RELIGIOUS STATE. 139 

Supreme Being ; but that they almost generally worship 
directly or indirectly the spirits of departed human beings, 
and this more from fear than love. 

, This interesting topic needs the less discus- 
in the immor- sion, since it has been indirectly treated under 
tality of the t ^ e ] ast head. Like the ancient Egyptians, 
the modern Hindoo and the Jews of old, 
these tribes hold a sort of doctrine of transmigration of 
souls. It is a great step in advance towards a purer faith 
that they are not materialists; their very fears and supersti- 
tions are in the right direction. 

There is something peculiarly striking in the fact of 
these African tribes being generally in precisely the same 
state of mind as that in which the heathen of our Lord's 
and the Apostles' day, were, in reference to this momentous 
doctrine. When Jesus Christ brought life and immortality 
to light through his Gospel, the great majority of the Jews 
believed with him that their souls would live after death, 
although with an imperfect metempsychosian notion. When 
Paul preached at Athens, or at Corinth or Rome, the philo- 
sophic Greek and practical Roman familiarly understood, 
and implicitly believed in, the deathless destiny of the soul 
after death. Or when St John, and other Evangelists 
and Apostles, declared the same truths before the minds of 
the subtile and imaginative Asiatics, like results followed; 
the story was not new. In all ages and among all nations 
such a belief has been more or less clearly held. The 
universal assent to it among these newly-found tribes is only 
an additional testimony to the impressive fact that the soul 
feels and knows her own true instincts ; — that she craves 
after that which is congenial with her own immortal nature; 
like answering to like; — that she is conscious of her un- 
fledged untested and untold but enormous powers ; — that 
she longs to escape the evil and to realize the good ; — and 
that she sees with unmistakeably true intuition now and then 



140 APPENDIX. [sect. 

flashed upon her awakened consciousness in moments when 
desires after God, holiness, purity and perfect happiness 
electrify her inmost being, — that some better, purer and 
more enduring dwelling-place than earth is the home for 
which she would agonize as earnestly as she would desire it 
by her nature, if she knew but how to realize its blessed- 
ness 1 . 

We shall shortly see how that this general belief, though 
true in form, is signally different from Christ's Gospel in one 
fundamental particular : the effect of this difference being 

1 Dr Samuel Clarke, in his valuable and now but little known Boyle 
Lecture, on "The truth and certainty of the Christian Revelation," brings 
together a number of testimonies from celebrated heathen writers, who 
speak with as clear an assurance of their belief in the immortality of the 
soul as ever does St Paul, but without his revealed authority ; and with 
the omission of the necessarily twin doctrine of the resurrection of the 
body. 

Socrates and Plato write with singular force with reference to the 
immortality of the soul, as also does Cicero. The great difference be- 
tween these, together with all other heathen authors, and the Christian 
writers, being that the former always refer to the soul in the future state 
as a disembodied spirit, and the latter as being joined to a glorified body. 

Dr Clarke endeavours to shew the natural credibility of the soul's 
being immortal : — 

i . From the necessity of a future state, in order to satisfy God's 
justice in setting straight the apparent inequalities of his moral govern- 
ment of mankind in this life. 

i. Even from the nature of the thing itself in believing the soul to 
be immortal. 

3. That necessary desire of immortality which seems to be naturally 
implanted in all men, with an unavoidable concern for what is to come 
hereafter. 

4. That conscience or consciousness which all men have of their own 
actions, or that inward judgment which they necessarily pass on them 
in their own minds. " Their conscience bearing witness, and their thoughts 
accusing or else excusing one another." 

5. That man is plainly in his nature an accountable being, and 
capable of being judged. Prop. IV. 



iv.] RELIGIOUS STATE. HI 

the same in his time among Jews and Gentiles and in our 
own days among the African tribes, viz. that of the doc- 
trine of the resurrection of the body becoming a stumbling- 
block, — either in the form of a startling novelty, or of a 
disproved and exploded fiction — producing blank amaze- 
ment or stern opposition among them to whom its principles 
may for the first time have been demonstrated. 

The doctrine of the transmigration of souls is extensively 
held among the natives of these regions. A Balonda tribe, 
under the Chief Bango, refused to eat cattle, because they 
declare them to tabernacle the souls of men. Some people 
on the eastern side will not kill lions, because the spirits of 
their Chiefs inhabit them : concluding, like the ancient 
Egyptians, that after the departed from this life have dwelt 
in animals &c, for a certain time, they will return to their 
own bodies. 

This discussion concerning the immortality of the soul 
is a highly important and truly personal one. 

The northern tribes of South Africa have the most 
decided belief in this doctrine. The Balonda watch, and 
put medicine on the graves of the dead, in order to keep 
away the witches. One of the Barotse, having a head-ache, 
said to our Traveller, with a sad and thoughtful counte- 
nance; " My father is scolding me because I did not give 
him any of the food to eat," adding that he was " among 
the Barimo '." On another occasion Dr Livingstone asked 
these people for some relic of their dead chief Santura. 
"O, no, he refuses." " Who refuses?" "Santura," was their 
reply, shewing their belief in a future state of existence 2 . 

Surely with such promising prospects of a spiritual 
harvest before the Christian world, evidenced in so many 
ways, the soldiers of the Cross will be found with armour 
bright, hope strong, faith unfeigned, and love unconquer- 
able for their risen Saviour, ready, aye ready to say with 
1 Travels, p. 331. 2 Ibid. p. 219. 



142 APPENDIX. [sect. 

Paul, "Lord what wilt thou have me to do?" and to act 

like him in carrying his Gospel into those regions wherein 

it is so much needed. 

Their i<mor- Perhaps the great Apostle met with as 

ance or denial much opposition to this one tenet of the 
of the resur- „. . . „ . , , ,. , , , 

rection of the Christian faith as he did to any other single 

body. point of his teaching. This was more espe- 

cially the case with the Gentiles than with the Jews. 

When he preached his celebrated sermon on Mars' Hill, 
at Athens, — surrounded as he was by gorgeous idols, mag- 
nificent temples, inimitable statues and other works of art, 
together with a sharp-witted curious populace, and the 
acute and learned representatives of the most renowned 
schools of ancient philosophy, — we find that he was pa- 
tiently listened to until he propounded this truth; — "And 
when they heard of the resurrection of the dead, 
some mocked, and others said, We will hear thee again of 
this matter^!" 

The experience of Christian missionaries in South Africa 
has been remarkably like this of St Paul's, but with the dif- 
ference that the groundwork of the opposition given to 
them is not like that which was offered to him. The 
abstruse question of physical identity, while he lost sight 
of that of moral identity, was the obstacle in the way of 
the reasoning Greek : — The more practical and experi- 
mental one of the inconvenient workings of conscience, and 
the terrible consequences of the reality and realization of 
such a verity foreshadowing with so much startling proba- 
bility dire punishment to the unrepentant sinner when 
called to judgment and sentenced thereupon, makes a de- 
termined opponent to its truth of the benighted African. 
The Epicurean, or Stoic, with his multifarious knowledge 
and solid understanding, in his day derided and hindered 

1 Acts xvii. 32. 



iv.] RELIGIO US ST A TE. 1 4 3 

the Christian philosopher equally learned, as skilfully trained, 
more eloquent, and better principled than himself: — The 
blood-stained negro chief, by passion, vehemence and decla- 
mation, nay even by violence, does the same with reference 
to the zealous and active missionary. 

Mr Moffat in his intercourse with Moselekatse taught 
him of the resurrection of the dead. The chief heard him, 
as did Sechele 1 , with wondering awe. Instead of violently 
opposing, Moselekatse appeared intimidated at hearing this 
news, and said he would not go to war. 

Makaba, chief of the Bauangketsi, hears the new doc- 
trine with great excitement. It is Sunday — not the peace- 
ful Sabbath day of a Christian land. Nature is beautiful, 
but man is ill in tune with the harmony and glory around 
him. Mr Moffat sets out for Makaba's town. He finds the 
chief seated in the midst of a large number of his principal 
men, all engaged either in preparing skins, cutting them, 
sewing mantles or telling news. We will hear the mission- 
ary's own narrative of what took place: 

" Sitting down beside this great man, illustrious for 
war and conquest, and amidst nobles and counsellors, in- 
cluding rain-makers and others of the same order, I stated 
to him that my object was to tell him my news. His coun- 
tenance lighted up, hoping to hear of feats of war, destruc- 
tion of tribes, and such like subjects, so congenial to his 
savage disposition. When he found that my topics had 
solely a reference to the Great Being of whom, the day 
before, he had told me he knew nothing, and of the Saviour's 
mission to this world, whose name he had never heard, he 
resumed his knife and jackal's skin, and hummed a native 
air. One of his men, sitting near me, appeared struck with 
the character of the Redeemer, which I was endeavouring 
to describe, and particularly with his miracles. On hearing 
that He had raised the dead, he very naturally exclaimed, 
1 Lecture I. p. 4. 



144 APPENDIX. [sect. 

'What an excellent doctor He must have been, to make 
dead men live!' This led me to describe His power, and 
how that power would be exercised at the last day in raising 
the dead. In the course of my remarks, the ear of the 
monarch caught the startling sound of a resurrection. 
'What!' he exclaimed, with astonishment, c what are these 
words about ? the dead, the dead arise!' ' Yes,' was my 
reply, ' all the dead shall arise.' * Will my father arise ? ' 
' Yes,' I answered, ' your father will arise.' ' Will all the 
slain in battle arise?' ' Yes.' ' And will all that have been 
killed and devoured by lions, tigers, hyenas and crocodiles, 
again revive?' ' Yes ; and come to judgment.' 'And will 
those whose bodies have been left to waste and to wither 
on the desert plains, and scattered to the winds, again 
arise?' he asked, with a kind of triumph, as if he had now 
fixed me. 'Yes,' I replied, 'not one will be left behind/ 
This I repeated with increased emphasis. After looking at 
me for a few moments, he turned to his people, to whom he 
spoke with a stentorian voice : — ' Hark, ye wise men, who- 
ever is among you, the wisest of past generations, did ever 
your ears hear such strange and unheard of news ? ' And 
addressing himself to one, whose countenance and attire 
shewed that he had seen many years, and was a personage 
of no common order, ' Have you ever heard such strange 
news as this?' 'No,' was the sage's answer: c \ had sup- 
posed that I possessed all the knowledge of the country, for 
I have heard the tales of many generations. I am in the 
place of the ancients, but my knowledge is confounded 
with the words of his mouth. Surely he must have lived 
long before the period when we were born.' Makaba, then 
turning and addressing himself to me, and laying his hand 
on my breast, said, ' Father, I love you much. Your visit 
and your presence have made my heart white as milk. The 
words of your mouth are sweet as honey, but the words of 
a resurrection are too great to be heard. I do not wish to 



IV. 



RELIGIO US ST A TE. 1 45 



hear again about the dead rising ! The dead cannot arise ! 
The dead must not arise!' 'Why/ I inquired, ' can so 
great a man refuse knowledge, and turn away from wisdom? 
Tell me, my friend, why 1 must not, " add to words " and 
speak of a resurrection?' Raising and uncovering his arm, 
which had been strong in battle, and shaking his hand as if 
quivering a spear, he replied, ' I have slain my thousands 
(bontsintsi), and shall they arise?" 

" While the chieftain and myself were engaged in the 
above conversation, the most profound silence reigned, and 
which continued till interrupted by one whose features ap- 
peared to indicate that he was a man of war. 4 1 have 
killed many, but I never saw the immortal part which you 
describe.' 'Because invisible,' I replied; and referred him 
to many invisible things, the existence of which he never 
doubted. Makaba again muttered, ' What do my ears hear 
to-day? I am old, but never thought of these things be- 
fore;' and hinted that he had heard enough 1 ." 

This soul-stirring quotation must cause burning thoughts 
to arise in the hearts of all Christians who read it. Sechele's 
question on the same subject is a most striking one; viz. 
why our forefathers, knowing these things, did not come 
and tell his forefathers sooner? It is not now too late. The 
way is open. The Gospel is as powerful as ever it was. 
The means of communication are being quickened and 
multiplied, and the Lord's Word must have free course and 
shall be glorified. 

How far Idolatry in South Africa assumes a curious 

these people aspect. In the southern half there is none. 

togethrr^witU We haVe Seen h ° W Mr Moffat ' and other of 
the general use Dr Livingstone's predecessors in the South, 

?L™tandfn- complain of the apparent Atheism of the 
cantations a- people in general. Our traveller found no 
moQg them. idols among them. None even among the 

1 Missionary Lahours, &c. pp. 403 — 405. 



146 APPENDIX. [sect. 

Makololo, Barotse, Makalala, and other tribes residing on 
the northern banks of the Zambesi. The only approach to 
it among the Makololo is a custom they have of praying to 
the new moon for success, protection, destruction of enemies, 
&c. This partakes more of the character of pure Sabeism, 
than of real idolatry, or the worship of idols made with 
hands. 

He for the first time saw idols in Londa. Here their 
names, kinds, and numbers, are legion. He observes that 
the greater superstition of these people does not lead them 
to a better practice of the virtues. 

In their gloomy primeval forests — fitting places wherein 
to nurse morbid fears, doleful doubts, crude surmisings, and 
baseless visions, with reference to the great unknown be- 
yond the grave — you find idols of some shape or kind near 
to every path. Here marks or faces cut on the bark of 
trees: there little pots of medicine, or miniature huts, stud- 
ding the tufted sod. On the one hand hideous human 
heads carved on blocks of wood ; and by its side perhaps 
a miserable crooked stick in all its bare deformity exalted 
into an idol ; all having red-ochre and pipe-clay charms 
blotched over them. On the other hand, near the villages, 
stand ugly idols, meant to personify lions, or alligators, or 
anything you please ; as well as great heaps of sticks piled 
cairn-fashion, inviting the devotion of the passer-by. 

Among the Balonda, their idols are objects of fear, not 
of adoration. Like some persons in Christian lands, they 
only go to their God when in perplexity or danger; giving 
it more an oracular, than any other power. 

A belief in witchcraft is common all over the whole 
southern half of the continent. This subject, with that of 
the ordeal, has been already treated of by Professor Sedg- 
wick 1 . These are often employed for purposes of knavery. 

Charms and incantations are generally used. Amid 
1 Prefatory Letter, pp. xviii — xx. 



iv.] RELIG10 US ST A TE. 117 

their evil influences, they serve one good purpose by giving 
almost as much security to property in countries without 
any police, or civil or international law, except those of 
custom and tradition, as can be found in the most civilized 
countries. Witness the case of our traveller's waggon and 
box left for months without protection. A fear of charms, 
incantations, or witchcraft, so rooted in the native mind, 
helped powerfully to protect these, as it does the beehives 
in the forests of Londa. 

On the dark side of the a t uestion, they cause murders, 
tortures, and frauds, helping to display, with a photographic 
hideousness of detail, the depraved deformity of the natural 
mind when not converted, purified, and lighted by the 
Spirit of the living God. 

The Barotse have persons in charge of the 
So th Af ' relics at Santura's tomb, who are supported 
tribes have a by voluntary contributions 1 . 

shadow of a Sacrifice is almost unknown in the south. 

priest -hood ; 

and a notion of This with Votive Offerings is common in 

the efficacy of more northern re <ri ns. 

Sacrifice : as y 

well as practise Our traveller in various parts found traces 

circumcision, of human sacrifices. 

and celebrate ... . . 

religious rites Circumcision is very generally enjoined 

and ceremo- anc { rigidly practised among the South African 
tribes. 
These people, in some parts, are so absurdly extravagant 
in religious and funeral ceremonies, as to ruin themselves, 
rather than not make a display. 

,™ The positions assumed at the head of this 

pie in general paragraph appear to be anomalous, but thev 

strongly object are never theless true. 

to praying and 

religious ser- Our traveller relates that sometimes, be- 

vices : but still f ore ^ e close of a religious service among the 
evince a readi- ° . ° 

nessforthe re- Makololo, the women would jostle and scold 

1 Travels, p. 219. 

18 



US APPENDIX. [sect 

ception of the each other, perhaps through a child crying ; 
Gospel. an j t j lat xh en the men would swear at each 

other, and at them, in order to enforce silence. 

He says that these people shew great dislike to religious 
exercises, service, and subjects, complaining of bad memo- 
ries, and mixing up frivolous nonsense with the most solemn 
truths. Yet many were very teachable and attentive, 
t( beginning to pray to Jesus in secret as soon as they hear 
of the white man's God, with but little idea of what they 
are about; and no doubt are heard by Him who, like a 
father, pitieth his children. Others, waking by night, 
recollect what has been said about the future world so 
clearly, that they tell next day what a fright they got by 
it, and resolve not to listen to the teaching again; and not a 
few keep to the determination not to believe, as certain 
villagers in the south, who put all their cocks to death 
because they crowed the words, ' Tlang lo rapeleng 5 — 
' Come along to prayers 1 .'" 

The Bechuanas and Bushmen never pray, in our sense 
of the word ; they say that they do so by means of their 
medicines. Mr Moffat gives the following graphic account 
of the indecorum of these people at public worship. 

"Some would be snoring; others laughing; some 
working; and others, who might even be styled the noblesse, 
would be employed in removing from their ornaments cer- 
tain nameless insects, letting them run about the forms, 
while sitting by the missionary's wife. Never having been 
accustomed to chairs or stools, some, by way of imitation, 
would sit with their feet on the benches, having their 
knees, according to their usual mode of sitting, drawn up 
to their chins. In this position one would fall asleep and 
tumble over, to the great merriment of his fellows. On 
some occasions an opportunity would be watched to rob, 
when the missionary was engaged in public service. The 
1 Travels, p. 236. 



iv.] RELIGIOUS STATE. 140 

thief would just put his head within the door, discover who 
was in the pulpit, and, knowing he could not leave his 
rostrum before a certain time had elapsed, would go to his 
house and take what he could lay his hands upon." 

Still with all these discouraging traits of character, 
and the necessary self-denial, sufferings and labours of the 
missionaries, these tribes in general shew more or less 
preparedness of heart and soul for the reception of the 
Gospel, in the respect that they feel a need of and desire 
for something, although they know not what. That " the 
natural mind receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God, 
because they are spiritually discerned," is a well -proved 
truth. Still this natural mind can conjecture and feel its 
immense distance from a just and holy God, with whom it 
may grope for communion and a closer walk, to be found 
only by the appointed means, and in the appointed way. 

These very Bechuanas have a proneness for worship, as 
also have the Balonda. The marauding life of the Makololo 
makes them sigh for ' sleep' or peace. On many occasions 
the women gave our traveller a triumphal entry into their 
villages, lullilooing, and crying "we want peace, give us 
sleep my lord, &c." The tribes farther east have a similar 
desire. Surely among such a people the Prince of Peace 
would be a welcome harbinger of His own heavenly rest 
assured by His Gospel, if He should make them His willing 
people in the day of His almighty power. 

Missionary retrospect with regard to South Africa. 

"Hitherto hath the Lord helped us." — i Sam. vii. 12. 

"For as the rain cometh down, and the snow from heaven, and 
returneth not thither, but watereth the earth, and maketh it bring forth 
and bud, that it may give seed to the sower, and bread to the eater : so 
shall my word be that goeth forth out of my mouth : it shall not return 
unto me void, but it shall accomplish that which I please, and it shall 
prosper in the thing whereto I sent it." — Isaiah lv. 10, 11. 

An attentive perusal and consideration of the facts con- 
centrated in the foregoing pages are far more calculated to 

18—2 



150 APPENDIX. [sect. 

convince the reader of the urgent necessity of energetic 
Missionary enterprise in South Africa than any arguments 
which can be brought forward to enforce it. The re- 
ferences here made to missionaries, and to the work and 
prospects of missions, will be brief. We must keep Dr 
Livingstone in view as our main authority on the subject. 

In recording these successes with deep 

Missionary ° . " . .. J 

enterprise and thankfulness, and m looking on a missionary 

successes in ma p f or stations, we find that the efforts which 
have produced such abundant fruit have been 
chiefly made by Societies other than those belonging to our 
own National Church. The history of Missionary enter- 
prise in these regions is very interesting. Here we have 
only space enough to chronicle these proceedings, without 
note or comment. 

The Jesuit and Capuchin missionaries did great good 
in Angola ; and, however erroneous their teaching might 
have been, and much to be deplored, still their names and 
memories deservedly live in the recollection of the people. 
They were especially diligent in the education of the chil- 
dren. The people in Ambaca were taught reading and 
writing by them, and since their expulsion have perpetuated 
these useful accomplishments by teaching each other, being 
much employed as clerks and writers 1 . 

Surely the teachers of a purer faith may hence take 
courage ; especially since the first instructions of these 
Jesuits have been permanent among the people for so long 
a time*. Their Missionary proceedings on the Eastern coast 
have not been so successful ; and their memory there is in 
disrepute. 

The London Moravian and Wesleyan Missionary Societies 
have been the great pioneers in these regions. All honour is 
due to these societies, especially the first mentioned of them, 
for their persevering labours as pioneers, from which such 

1 Travels, pp. 410, 411. 2 Ibid. p. 4T1. 



iv.] MISSIONARY RETROSPECT. 151 

good fruits have resulted. The London Society has now 
twelve stations entirely supported by the natives on the spot. 

The venerable Christian Knowledge Society has been 
long forwarding the cause of Missions in South Africa, in 
its own useful and peculiar line of operations. Grants of books 
or of money for the support of Missionaries, building of 
Schools, Churches, Cathedrals, &c, have been constantly 
made by this Society at Cape Town, Graham's Town, or Xatal. 

The Religious Tract and Bible Societies have likewise 
acted the part of the Missionary to Missionaries, since 
they have supplied the latter with Bibles, literature, &c, 
wherewith to second their own personal endeavours to teach 
and improve the people. 

The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign 
Parts has establishments in our own African Colonies, in ac- 
cordance with its main object of sending the Gospel to our 
countrymen abroad. It has commenced missions with suc- 
cess among the Zoolus and other heathen tribes. 

The Church Missionary Society has stations at Sierra 
Leone, as well as on and in the neighbourhood of the Niger. 
Its Yoruba mission is well-known 1 . 

The operations of this Society refer directly to North 
Africa, but also indirectly to the South, since many slaves 
from these latter regions are landed by our cruisers at Sierra 
Leone. This Society has no mission in South Africa. 

Keeping the central regions in view, one fact connected 

1 An examination of a missionary map of South Africa will shew that 
the stations of the following British and Foreign Protestant Missionary 
Societies are dotted over the Southern half of the Continent : — the 
American Mission, the Baptist Mission, the Berlin Missionary Society, 
the Christian Knowledge Society, the French Protestant Mission, the 
Glasgow Mission, the London Mission, the Paris Mission, the Rhenish 
Mission, the Scotch Mission, the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel in Foreign Parts, the Moravian or United Brethren Society 
and the "Wesleyan Mission. 



152 APPENDIX. [sect. 

with the operations of this Society in Sierra Leone is of sig- 
nificant interest, as being thus stated in one of their papers : 
"But the chief importance of Sierra Leone consists in its 
being the basis op Missionary Operations in the interior 
of Africa. Already two missions have been commenced in the 
interior — one among the Timnehs, east of the Colon)', the 
other, above 1,000 miles south-eastward in the neighbour- 
hood of the Niger, in the Bight of Benin ; a third is about 
to be established on the banks of that important river 1 ." 

This may become a valuable radiating centre for such 
operations. The negro population of the Colony is now 
45,000, speaking 151 different African languages. 

Conjointly with these facts, the very curse of the slave- 
trade will help to work its own cure. Thousands of central 
Africans, captured by our cruisers on board the slavers, and 
set on shore in this colony, are here taught Christianity ; 
an outpouring of the Holy Spirit on persons of divers tongues 
and nationalities, so kidnapped and released, may — some- 
what after the manner of the spiritual effusion at Pentecost 
— impel them to return to their native wilds, and help them 
there to teach their sable brothers and sisters the wonderful 
words and works of God. Hence the morning-star of the 
Gospel dawns on central Africa from the east, from the west 
and from the south. 

With reference to the good influences of Christianity in- 
sensibly exercised on a people, our traveller says : " Many 
hundreds of both Griquas and Bechuanas have become 
Christians and partially civilized through the teaching of 
English missionaries. My first impressions of the progress 
made were, that the accounts of the effects of the Gospel 
among them had been too highly coloured. I expected a 
higher degree of Christian simplicity and purity than exists 
either among them or among ourselves. I was not anxious 

1 A Brief View of the Principles and Proceedings of the Church Mis- 
sionary Society, &c. Sept. 1857, pp. 7 — 8. 



iv.] MISSIONARY RETROSPECT. 153 

for a deeper insight in detecting shams than others, but I 
expected character, such as we imagine the primitive dis- 
ciples had — and was disappointed. When, however, 1 
passed on to the true heathen in the countries beyond the 
sphere of missionary influence, and could compare the people 
there with the Christian natives, I came to the conclusion 
that, if the question were examined in the most rigidly 
severe or scientific way, the change effected by the mission- 
ary movement would be considered unquestionably great. 

" We cannot fairly compare these poor people with our- 
selves, who have an atmosphere of Christianity and enlight- 
ened public opinion, the growth of centuries, around us, to 
influence our deportment; but let any one from the natural 
and proper point of view behold the public morality of 
Griqua Town, Kuruman, Likatlong, and other villages, and 
remember what even London was a century ago, and he 
must confess that the Christian mode of treating aborigines 
is incomparably the best 1 ." 

He farther says that the latent effects of missions and 
missionaries on savage people are very great indeed : " The 
indirect benefits, which to a casual observer lie beneath the 
surface and are inappreciable, in reference to the probable 
wide diffusion of Christianity at some future time, are worth 
all the money and labour that have been expended to pro- 
duce them 2 ." 

When dwelling with the Makololo Dr Livingstone some- 
times addressed 600 people at a time ; many of these were 
oftentimes very attentive. Some would go away, and pray 
to Jesus — ignorantly, perhaps — but still their heavenly 
Father will accept of their devotions according to their light. 

It will be remembered how that Schwartz in India, and 
other missionaries in various parts of the heathen world, 
sometimes stopped wars between tribes and nations, and 
feuds between families and individuals. 

1 Travels, pp. 107, ro8. s Ibid. p. 226. 



154 APPENDIX. [sect. 

Dr Livingstone on Jive occasions prevented war among 
the African tribes, either by influencing public opinion, or 
by swaying the mind and counsels of the chief. When 
opportunity offered he introduced salutary laws, abolished 
barbarous customs, and restored liberated slaves to their 
families and tribes. 

In short the united testimony of civil and military 
officers, missionaries and travellers, goes to prove what in- 
estimable blessings Christian missions have conferred on the 
South African tribes, hence leading us in reference to pre- 
sent and future efforts to thank God and take courage. 

. It is not only so ordered by our heavenly 

difficulties in Father, that in this world the evil shall be 
South Africa. m i X ed with the good ; but also that the great- 
est and best shall be produced and sustained with the most 
difficulty. War, the demon-scourge of our race, is main- 
tained by the millions readily voted by a nation's senate, 
and applauded by the praises of a people's voice; but the 
message of the Prince of Peace is perpetuated by suffering, 
contemned by power, and propagated too often by the 
comparatively niggardly offerings of a country's mite. 

Missionary work has its difficulties and failures. The 
blood of the martyrs has ever been the seed of the church. 
Toil, care, anxiety, persecution, stripes, imprisonment and 
death, were the common lot of the first Christian missionaries: 
but they sowed in tears, and soon will reap in joy. They went 
forth weeping, bearing precious seed, and shall doubtless come 
again with rejoicing, bringing their sheaves with them. Such 
has been the fate, and like will be the reward, of the faithful 
modern missionary. 

Let us turn attention to some of the difficulties belonging 
to missionary work, mentioned by our traveller. 

It is not easy to make the subject of religion plain to 
persons unaccustomed to think, and who have led only an 
animal life. In reference to language, different idiomatic 



iv.] MISSIONARY DIFFICULTIES. 155 

usages, and modes of thought, often require in the mission- 
ary an uprooting of his own habitudes of expression and 
ways of thinking, in order that he may become one with 
those whom he teaches. 

Among a nomad people difficulties are even greater. 
The first thing is to get them to settle down. With such 
you may have a congregation of some hundreds one day, 
and another these may be all scattered to the winds. 

We have before seen how the Boers hindered the work : 
and the following remarks of our traveller fairly represent 
some other difficulties. 

" In addition to other adverse influences, the general 
uncertainty, though not absolute want, of food, and the 
necessity of frequent absence for the purpose of either 
hunting game or collecting roots and fruits, proved a serious 
barrier to the progress of the people in knowledge. Our 
own education in England is carried on at the comfortable 
breakfast and dinner-table and by the cosy fire, as well as 
in the church and school. Few English people with sto- 
machs painfully empty would be decorous at church any 
more than they are when these organs are overcharged. 
Ragged schools would have been a failure had not the 
teachers wisely provided food for the body as well as food 
for the mind; and not only must w T e shew a friendly interest 
in the bodily comfort of the objects of our sympathy as a 
Christian duty, but we can no more hope for healthy feelings 
among the poor, either at home or abroad, without feeding 
them into them, than we can hope to see an ordinary 
working-bee reared into a queen-mother by the ordinary 
food of the hive. 

"Sending the Gospel to the heathen must, if this view be 
correct, include much more than is implied in the usual 
picture of a missionary, namely, a man going about with a 
Bible under his arm. The promotion of commerce ought 
to be specially attended to, as this, more speedily than 



156 APPENDIX. [sect. 

anything else, demolishes that sense of isolation which 
heathenism engenders, and makes the tribes feel themselves 
mutually dependent on, and mutually beneficial to, each 
other'." 

The difficulty of getting the natives at first to attend 
with reverence on divine service, or to religious duties, has 
been before dwelt on 2 . When Dr Livingstone attempted to 
sing or pray among the Bakalahari, these people burst out 
into a fit of uncontrollable laughter, thinking him to be mad, 
or that he judged them to be so. 

Then, again, a native literature has to be founded and 
extended. This is a work requiring much time and labour, 
especially in a country wherein languages have to be 
arranged in grammars, and over the thousands of whose 
square miles not a bookseller's shop is to be found. 
Still these difficulties will be overcome. Those Christian 
missionaries who first came to the British Islands before 
St Augustine, as well as he, found our forefathers half- 
clad savages; and what has Christianity after the lapse 
of ages made us now? — The greatest nation standing in 
the forefront of the civilization of the most astonishing 
age of the world's history. Let Britain fulfil her mission; 
especially towards Africa, whom she has, in former years, 
helped to degrade, enslave and curse. 

Missionary There is no doubt whatever but that our 

shortcomings National Church is much behind in missionary 
in South Af- effort among these people. She certainly has 
a Bishop of Sierra Leone, Cape Town, Gra- 
ham's Town, and Natal : together with the missionaries be- 
longing to the two great Societies before mentioned. But 
these are labouring mainly in our own Colonies. She has 
few missions among the real heathen in Africa ; especially 
in the South. 

Dr Livingstone says that Sectarianism is a source of 

1 Travels, pp. 27 — 28. 2 Appendix, p. 148. 



iv.] MISSIONARY FAIL UIIES. 1 5 7 

hindrance to the work: — " Such a variety of Christian sects 
have followed the footsteps of the London Missionary 
Society's successful career, that converts of one denomina- 
tion, if left to their own resources, are eagerly adopted by 
another; and are thus more likely to become spoiled than 
trained to the manly Christian virtues 1 ." 

He further states: — 
"Another element of weakness in this part of the 
missionary field is the fact of the Missionary Societies con- 
sidering the Cape Colony itself as a proper sphere for their 
peculiar operations. In addition to a well-organised and 
efficient Dutch Reformed Established Church, and schools 
for secular instruction, maintained by Government, in every 
village of any extent in the colony, we have a number of 
other sects, as the Wesleyans, Episcopalians, Moravians, 
all piously labouring at the same good work. Now, it is 
deeply to be regretted that so much honest zeal should 
be so lavishly expended in a district wherein there is so 
little scope for success. When we hear an agent of one 
sect urging his friends at home to aid him quickly to occupy 
some unimportant nook, because, if it is not speedily laid 
hold of, he will ' not have room for the sole of his foot,' one 
cannot help longing that bothheandhis friends would direct 
their noble aspirations to the millions of untaught heathen 
in the regions beyond, and no longer continue to convert 
the extremity of the continent into, as it were, a dam of 
benevolence 2 ." 

The work of evangelization is generally a gradual one 
in influencing race. The case of New Zealand is an excep- 
tion to this rule. Some tribes do not at first receive the 
Gospel at all ; and with all others temporary failures arise 
from various causes, although the work goes on rapidly in 
some cases. Many Africans have the same feelings towards 
missionaries, which our poor often have towards the clergy 
1 Travels, pp. 115 — 166. 2 Ibid. p. 116. 



158 APPENDIX. [sect. 

here at home. They teach because they are paid for it, say 
both. In such circumstances ministrations are most difficult. 
Despite these, and many other hindrances to the progress 
of the Gospel in South Africa, still labour has not been in 
vain, and strength has not been spent for nought. " The 
wilderness has begun to blossom as the rose;" all these 
heathen do not despise the day of their visitation. Additions 
are being made to the church daily of such as shall be 
saved. The degraded have been raised, the savage tamed. 
" Those who have lien among the pots shall be as the wings 
of a dove covered with silver, and her feathers with yellow 
gold." These shall go in and out and find pasture in hea- 
ven's kingdom of unfading glory. 

The Qualifications and Attainments necessary for the Suc- 
cessful Missionary in South Africa. 

1 ' And he, trembling and astonished, said, Lord, what wilt thou have 
me to do ?" — Acts ix. 6. 

"Depart ; for I will send thee far hence unto the Gentiles." — Acts 
xxii. 21. 

" But when it pleased God, who separated me from my mother's womb, 
and called me by his grace, to reveal his Son in me, that I might preach 
him among the heathen ; immediately I conferred not with flesh and 
blood." — Gal. i. 15, 16. 

Dr Livingstone has been a successful missionary; and 
since his main object in coming to Cambridge was to try to 
influence some among us to become missionaries, we may 
profitably attend to his ideas on this important head. 
Already has he briefly discussed the topic 1 . 

Feeling convinced that many persons would like to 
know his opinion on so great a subject as to the type of man 
the best suited for a missionary in Africa, presupposing 
spirituality of mind, and devotion of heart and soul to 
God's service, in December last the Editor of this book 

1 Lecture II. p. 37. 



iv.] THE MISSIONARY. 159 

addressed to him the following questions, stating that he 
wished to print them herein together with his reply. 

These questions are: — 

1st. What natural qualifications of mind and body do 
you consider to be the best adapted for the successful mis- 
sionary in South Africa ? 

2nd. What training and attainments are, in your judg- 
ment, the most conducive to the formation of the same 
character ? 

3rd. What equipment, speaking generally, as to cloth- 
ing, library, scientific and other instruments, &c. is the 
best to provide for such a missionary ? 

Dr Livingstone's answer is as follows. 

12, Kensington Palace Gardens, 
My dear Sir, I** January, 1858. 

The time which I have now at my disposal 
is so extremely limited that I cannot answer your questions 
otherwise than in the most cursory manner. 

1st, Different departments of missionary labour require 
different accomplishments; but robust health and a good 
flow of animal spirits are necessary in all cases. A man 
who is troubled with infirm health, and given to melan- 
choly, had better stay at home and get some kind soul of a 
wife to nurse him. In this, as in most matters, we must 
lean to common sense. 

Queries 2 and 3 may be answered by my saying that 
mental discipline is essentially necessary: and I think that 
a study of the physical sciences is a better preparation than 
that of the dead languages. 

A medical education embraces so wide a range that I 
always feel unfeignedly thankful for having gone through 
that curriculum. 

It is a mistake to suppose that any pious man may do 
for a missionary. One of the founders of the London 



160 APPENDIX. [sect. 

Missionary Society thought that " a good man who could 
read his Bible, and make a wheelbarrow/' was abundantly 
qualified. This was a great mistake. Missionaries ought 
to be highly qualified in every respect. Good education, 
good sense, and good temper are indispensable. If Chris- 
tians send out poor ignorant agents, they act on the penny 
wise and pound foolish plan. 

Some think that if a man is an acceptable preacher 
at home, he ought to stay there. I believe that if a man 
has ability to gather a congregation here, he would in all 
probability be successful in the mission-field. But it is 
these energetic enterprising men who are needed most 
abroad, and it may be questioned whether the foreign is not 
the most important field. We have the honour of entering 
on a work which will never end. We look back to the 
Reformers before the Reformation with more reverence 
than we feel to the thousands who have entered into their 
labours. The Apostle had a noble ambition to preach the 
Gospel beyond other men's line of things made ready to 
his hands. " They that be wise shall shine as the sun, and 
they that turn many to righteousness as the stars for ever 
and ever." 

I am sorry that I cannot enter more carefully into the 
subject, but time presses. 

The books came safely to hand; please present my 
grateful acknowledgements to the kind donors of them. 

I look back to my visit to Cambridge as one of the 
most pleasant episodes of my life. I shall always revert 
with feelings of delight to the short intercourse I enjoyed 
with such noble Christian men as Sedgwick, Whewell, 
Selwyn, &c. &c, as not the least important privilege con- 
ferred on me by my visit to England. It is something 
inspiriting to remember that the eyes of such men are upon 
one's course. May blessings rest upon them all, and on the 
seat of learning which they adorn ! 



iv.] THE MISSIONARY. 161 

Viewing the books presented in connexion with the 
motives with which they were given, and also with regard 
to their intrinsic value, I shall always feel inclined to second 
any vote of thanks which may be passed to the Boers for 
destroying my library. 

Kind regards to Mrs Monk. 

Your's affectionately, 

DAVID LIVINGSTONE. 
To Eev. W. Monk, 

Aubrey Villa, Cambridge. 

This letter, full of heart and noble as it is, since it in 
reality embodies his own line of conduct, nevertheless does 
not answer some important points contained in the ques- 
tions 1 . 

Our traveller gives the following account of his own 
equipment for his journey from Linyanti to Loanda. The 
information is valuable for the African traveller or mis- 
sionary, to be modified, of course, to his own circumstances. 

" I had three muskets for my people, a rifle and double- 
barrelled smooth bore for myself; and, having seen such 
great abundance of game in my visit to the Leeba, I 
imagined that I could easily supply the wants of my 
party. Wishing also to avoid the discouragement which 
would naturally be felt on meeting any obstacles if my 
companions were obliged to carry heavy loads, I took 
only a few biscuits, a few pounds of tea and sugar, and 
about twenty of coffee, which, as the Arabs find, though 
used without either milk or sugar, is a most refreshing 

1 Perhaps Dr Livingstone, on the receipt of some copies of this 
little book, will discuss these questions more fully from amid those 
African scenes to which they refer, if he should have leisure to do so. 

The Editor will be obliged if any traveller or missionary who has 
resided in Africa will reply to these inquiries, in order that he might 
concentrate, in some future edition of this book, the wisdom and ex- 
perience of many with reference to these topics. 



162 APPENDIX. [sect. 

beverage after fatigue or exposure to the sun. We carried 
one small tin canister, about fifteen inches square, filled 
with spare shirting, trowsers, and shoes, to be used when 
we reached civilised life, and others in a bag, which were 
expected to wear out on the way ; another of the same size 
for medicines; and a third for books, my stock being a 
Nautical Almanac, Thomson's Logarithm Tables, and a 
Bible; a fourth box contained a magic lantern, which we 
found of much use. The sextant and artificial horizon, 
thermometer and compasses, were carried apart. My am- 
munition was distributed in portions through the whole 
luggage, so that, if an accident should befall one part, we 
could still have others to fall back upon. Our chief hopes 
for food were upon that, but in case of failure I took about 
20 lbs. of beads, worth 40.?. which still remained of the 
.stock I brought from Cape Town; a small gipsy-tent, just 
sufficient to sleep in; a sheepskin mantle as a blanket, and 
a horse-rug as a bed. As I had always found that the art 
of successful travel consisted in taking as few e impedi- 
menta' as possible, and not forgetting to carry my wits 
about me, the outfit was rather spare, and intended to 
be still more so when we should come to leave the canoes. 
Some would consider it injudicious to adopt this plan, but 
I had a secret conviction that if I did not succeed it would 
not be for lack of the ' nicknacks' advertised as indispen- 
sable for travellers, but from want of 'pluck/ or because a 
large array of baggage excited the cupidity of the tribes 
through whose country we wished to pass. 

" The instruments I carried, though few, were the best of 
their kind. A sextant, by the famed makers Troughton 
and Sims of Fleet-Street; a chronometer watch, with a stop 
to the second's hand — an admirable contrivance for enabling 

o 

a person to take the exact time of observations; it was 
constructed by Dent of the Strand (61) for the Royal 
Geographical Society, and selected for the service by the 



iv.] THE MISSIONARY. 163 

President, Admiral Smythe, to whose judgment and kind- 
ness I am in this and other matters deeply indebted. It 
was pronounced by Mr Maclear to equal most chronometers 
in performance. For these excellent instruments I have 
much pleasure in recording my obligations to my good 
friend Colonel Steele, and at the same time to Mr Maclear 
for much of my ability to use them. Besides these, I 
had a thermometer by Dollond; a compass from the Cape 
Observatory, and a small pocket one in addition; a good 
small telescope with a stand capable of being screwed into a 
tree'." 

Is the reader This is not an easy question to answer: 
fitted for the and a reply to it must always be given prayer- 
Christian Mis^ * u ^y- It apphes to both sexes, and to many 
sionary to the persons ; but is meant more especially to refer 
Heathen? ^ Qj sr j at j an Ministers. Not only does it re- 

quire earnest prayer, but also rigid self-examination. 

The great missionary model is St Paul. His life can be 
found and studied in the New Testament; and the per- 
manence of his work testifies of its excellency at this day. 

The Natural qualifications of the Christian Missionary. 
— Dr Livingstone has already told us of some of these, 
such as good temper, and lightsomeness of temperament in 
easily throwing off or overbearing depressing influences. 
A sound mind in a sound body, independence cf character, 
strength of judgment, and aptitude both to learn and to 
teach are of great consequence. An ability to acquire and 
retain languages; tact in managing others, so as to con- 
ciliate diverse dispositions, and yet to retain proper dignity 
and self-respect, are of great importance. There should 
also be an intrepid spirit of enterprise, decision, and cool 
courage to meet sudden emergencies, and to overcome dan- 
gers, gentleness, powers of endurance, and temperance. 
We may rightly conclude, with our traveller, that some 
1 Travels, pp. 230 — 231. 

19 



164 APPENDIX. [sect. 

degree of enthusiasm is necessary vigorously to carry on 
any difficult and important cause. 

Good preaching and the power of speaking are indis- 
pensable. It is to be remembered that many savages, 
especially North American Indians, and central Africans, 
are eloquent speakers, and hence in a controversy, would 
have the advantage of a bad speaker. 

Dr Livingstone has put the case truly, when he says that 
we want our best, most able, and greatest men to do the 
highest and most important of all work, the making Christ's 
Gospel known where it has not been hitherto heard. Paul 
was a great man before he became a missionary. He was 
a man of mighty spirit and capacious soul, a good scholar, 
and in high repute among his own nation. His missionary 
character made him a greater man still; it did not demean 
him. Many of the greatest men in the early Church were 
missionaries; and some were men of affluence. We mean 
great in moral and spiritual goodness and grandeur of 
character, as well as noble in intellect. Not many learned, 
not many wise, not many noble, not many rich, now carry 
the standard of the Prince of Peace into the enemy's coun- 
try of heathen darkness. The time will arrive when the 
Lord's service and badge will become the most honourable 
and the most desired of all. The army and navy, in every 
land, can find their willing warriors in abundance, to go to 
the ends of the earth, and brave death unquailingly, while 
mammon sends forth her worshippers in shoals; not so the 
church of Christ: her soldiers hang back. How long shall 
this be? 

Many of the natural qualifications needed by missionaries 
when actually engaged in their work, are centred in the 
character of our great missionary traveller. With reference 
to these the Bishop of Oxford eloquently observes; " Truly 
it does need the combination of different men and different 
faculties before any such vast undertaking as this can be 



iv.] THE MISSIONARY. 165 

achieved. There must be, first, the physical, the intellec- 
tual, the moral, and the spiritual faculties combined in one 
person, which are so eminently combined in Dr Livingstone, 
before the actual agent in such explorations can be pro- 
vided. ...He, too, combined in himself rare faculties for his 
work of stepping out, if I may so express it, as to African 
explorations the first track of civilized feet on the dange- 
rous and untrodden snows, which at any moment might be 
found to have merely loosely covered fathomless abysses. 
He had the physical strength needed for such work. He 
had the capacity for understanding the greatness of his 
enterprise, and, Gentlemen, I believe it to be full of the 
truest greatness 1 ." 

These passages certainly refer to the specific work done 
by him; but similar faculties and energies are required 
by every missionary when wandering, or settled, among 
savages. 

The moral and spiritual qualifications needed by the 
Christian missionary. — The following quotations, spoken 
with reference to Dr Livingstone, will help to illustrate 
some of the moral qualifications needed in the missionary. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, after referring to the great work 
done for the scientific world by Dr Livingstone, said: — 

" These are great claims upon the admiration of men of 
science; but, great as they are, they fall far short of others 
which attach to the name of the missionary who, by his 
fidelity to his word, by his conscientious regard for his 
engagements, won the affections of the natives of Africa by 
the example which he set before them in his treatment of 
the poor people who followed him in his arduous researches 
through that great continent 2 ." 

Fidelity to his plighted word, and conscientious regard 
for engagements, must ever be a high moral characteristic 
of the Christian missionary. 

1 Speech at the Farewell Livingstone Festival. 2 Ibid. 

19—2 



166 APPENDIX. [sect. 

Humility, patience and power to withstand the applause 
of men for well-doing, are other desirable traits. 

"It was for the public of England now to do its part, 
to give free scope to this great genius in the double work 
of civilization and evangelization. They must have seen 
how Dr Livingstone had successfully encountered all the 
trials of adversity, fatigue, sickness, weariness, hope de- 
ferred, peril of death. There yet remained one more trial, 
to some the sorest of all, namely, that of comparative ease, 
and the praise of all men. Believing, as the Missionary 
Society did, that his faith in Christ is firmly fixed, they 
doubted not but that he would go through this trial also 
without fail; but they will, I trust, continue to offer up con- 
stant prayers for him in his new and dangerous position, that 
the blessing of the Almighty might still accompany him 1 ." 

There are other points on which the missionary has to 
be kept from the evil, when surrounded by masses of people 
without natural modesty, public law, private virtue, or 
religious restraint. The following words of our traveller 
will indicate some of these. 

" Although the Makololo were so confiding, the reader 
must not imagine that they would be so to every individual 
who might visit them. Much of my influence depended 
upon the good name given me by the Bakwains, and that I 
secured only through a long course of tolerably good con- 
duct. No one ever gains much influence in this country 
without purity and uprightness. The acts of a stranger 
are keenly scrutinized by both young and old, and seldom 
is the judgment pronounced, even by the heathen, unfair 
or uncharitable. I have heard women speaking in admira- 
tion of a white man, because he was pure, and never was 
guilty of any secret immorality. Had he been, they would 
have known it, and, untutored heathen though they be, 
would have despised him in consequence. Secret vice 
1 Lord Ebury's Speech on the same occasion. 



iv.] THE MISSIONARY. 167 

becomes known throughout the tribe; and while one 
unacquainted with the language may imagine a peccadillo 
to be hidden, it is as patent to all as it would be in London, 
had he a placard on his back 1 ." 

In fact, sobriety, uprightness, good faith, purity and a 
manifestation of the fruits of the Spirit in general, are as 
much needed to solidify and enforce spiritual gifts among 
the heathen, as among ourselves. 

For a digest of the spiritual qualifications needed by the 
Christian missionary, we must turn to the Scriptures. Such 
a man must be a man of prayer, of earnest zeal, of childlike 
faith, of deep humility, and of constant love for his Mas- 
ter and His cause. His work will conform him more and 
more to that Master's image. Like the Apostles at first his 
gifts may be few, but at the last they will multiply and 
grow: and like them he will look less and less to the king- 
dom which is of this world, and more and more to that 
which is of the world to come. 

The attainments best suited for the Christian Missionary. 
— The man of high intellect as well as high attainment is 
the best man for the work, provided that his other quali- 
fications are suitable. Still he must possess common as 
well as uncommon sense. The great matter is for certain 
qualifications and attainments to be applied to kindred 
work. Linguistic to translation, practical to e very-day 
life, administrative to organization and the like. Martyn, 
unravelling the Hindoo and Mahommedan subtleties, and 
Judson battling the Pantheistic creeds of Burmah, were men 
with qualifications for their work. So was Brainerd amid 
the primeval forests of America ; and so are numbers of our 
Colonial Bishops and foreign missionaries. Especially so 
are Moffat and Livingstone in Africa. Yet how different 
are the attainments and qualifications of these several men. 
But each one in his place. 

1 Travels, p. 513. 



168 APPENDIX. [sect. 

St Paul's case furnishes a complete example of the 
missionary ready for his work. Had he to shew the fulfil- 
ment, and not the abrogation of the law by Christ? surely 
the aptest pupil of Gamaliel now converted to the Christian 
faith was furnished for the work. Were Moses and the 
Prophets to be harmonized with Christianity ? — were the 
Jewish ritual and ceremonial to be made to typify better 
things than the blood of bulls and goats for the remission 
of sins? — were Jewish prejudices to be met, and Rabbinical 
disputations to be confuted? or was the scepticism of the 
Sadducee to be cleared up, the pride of the Scribe to be 
humbled, and the legality of the Pharisee to be exposed? — 
surely one well versed in their mysteries, taught in their 
own synagogues, lisping their own language in his infancy, 
and now lighted in spirit with a live coal from off God's 
altar of truth, was qualified for the task. But see him turn 
to the Gentiles. Here he was a philosopher among phi- 
losophers, — a poet, man of literature, orator and diploma- 
tist, — among poets, literati, rhetoricians, politicians and 
statesmen. He could be all things to all men in intellect as 
well as in other things. Analyse his speech at Athens. 
Almost every clause of it is a refutation of some deep 
recognized axiom or dogma cherished among the Epicureans, 
stoics, or other philosophers. Here was a man trained for his 
work. The acutest of those Athenians, to their cost, soon 
found out that Paul was no witless babbler after all. Before 
the unjust Roman judge, and Judaea's puppet king, his 
burning words savoured not ot madness, but of soberness 
and truth. 

There is much value to be attached to a training in 
natural science, as recommended by Dr Livingstone. No 
missionary ought to go out, at any rate into the heathen 
field of missions, without some knowledge of surgery, 
medicine, and their attendant branches of scientific ac- 



iv.] THE MISSIONARY. 160 

quirement. Professor Owen 1 thus eloquently refers to 
such a training. 

" In the perusal of the Missionary's Travels it is impos- 
sible not to infer the previous training of a strong and 
original mind richly and variously stored; not otherwise 
could science have been enriched by such precious records 
of wanderings in a previously untrod field of discovery. 
Our honoured guest may feel assured that whilst the culti- 
vators of science yield to no class of minds in their appre- 
ciation and reverence of his dauntless dissemination of that 
higher wisdom which is not of this world, such feelings 
enhance their sense of obligation for his co-operation in the 
advancement of that lower wisdom which our great poet 
defines as c resting in the contemplation of natural causes 
and dimensions/" 

The missionary must be well versed in common things. 
The following passage referring to the monastic orders of 
the middle ages, applies to modern missionaries similarly 
situated. 

u The monks did not disdain to hold the plough. They 
introduced fruit-trees, flowers, and vegetables, in addition 
to teaching and emancipating the serfs. Their monasteries 
were mission stations, which resembled ours in being dis- 
pensaries for the sick, almshouses for the poor, and nurseries 
of learning. Can we learn nothing from them in their 
prosperity as the schools of Europe, and see nought in their 
history but the pollution and laziness of their decay 2 ?" 

A knowledge of the resources and geography of the 
country in which the missionary resides, as well as of the 
manners, habits, customs, and prejudices of the people 
among whom he labours, is of great consequence to the 
missionary. 

In several passages of his work our traveller gives us a 
picture of every-day missionary life. The stern reality of such 

1 Speech at the Farewell Festival. ' Travels, p. 117. 



170 APPENDIX. 



SECT. 



a life should be kept in view, rather than the romance or poetry 
of ideal wanderings among wilds and savages, and philoso- 
phic surveys of uncivilized and idolatrous life. At Kolobeng, 
we find him helping to make a canal, preparing a garden, 
and building his fourth house, with his own hands. A 
native smith taught him to weld iron, while he had become 
handy in carpentering, gardening, and almost every trade. 
As his wife could make candles, soap, and clothes, they 
came nearly up to what may be considered as indispensable 
in the complete accomplishments of a missionary family in 
south central Africa 1 . 

It is commonly agreed among missionaries and oriental 
travellers, that Europeans, and especially missionaries re- 
siding in the East, should be married. On the one hand 
the wife, when properly qualified, is a valuable help-meet; 
and on the other hand the Eastern nations look with great 
distrust on unmarried men, and hence their usefulness 
hereby is much impaired. 

We close this part of our work with the following graphic 
description of a single day of missionary life. 

" To some it may appear quite a romantic mode of 
life; it is one of active benevolence, such as the good may 
enjoy at home. Take a single day as a sample of the 
whole. We rose early, because, however hot the day may 
have been, the evening, night, and morning at Kolobeng 
were deliciously refreshing; cool is not the word, where 
you have neither an increase of cold nor heat to desire, and 
where you can sit ouf till midnight with no fear of coughs 
or rheumatism. After family worship and breakfast between 
six and seven, we went to keep school for all who would 
attend; men, women and children being all invited. School 
over at eleven o'clock, while the missionary's wife was 
occupied in domestic matters, the missionary himself had 
some manual labour, as a smith, carpenter, or gardener, 

1 Travels, p. 20. 



iv.] THE MISSIONARY. 171 

according to whatever was needed for ourselves or for the 
people; if for the latter, they worked for us in the garden, 
or at some other employment; skilled labour was thus 
exchanged for the unskilled. After dinner and an hour's 
rest the wife attended her infant-school, which the young, 
who were left by their parents entirely to their own caprice, 
liked amazingly, and generally mustered a hundred strong; 
or she varied that with a sewing school, having classes of 
girls to learn the art ; this, too, was equally well relished. 
During the day every operation must be superintended, 
and both husband and wife must labour till the sun de- 
clines. After sunset the husband went into the town to 
converse with any one willing to do so; sometimes on gene- 
ral subjects, at other times on religion. On three nights 
of the week, as soon as the milking of the cows was over and 
it had become dark, we had a public religious service, and 
one of instruction on secular subjects, aided by pictures and 
specimens. These services were diversified by attending 
upon the sick and prescribing for them, giving food and 
otherwise assisting the poor and wretched. We tried to 
gain their affections by attending to the wants of the body. 
The smallest acts of friendship, an obliging word and civil 
look, are, as St Xavier thought, no despicable part of the 
missionary armour. Nor ought the good opinion of the 
most abject to be uncared for, when politeness may secure 
it. Their good word in the aggregate forms a reputation 
which may be well employed in procuring favour for the 
Gospel. Shew kind attention to the reckless opponents of 
Christianity on the bed of sickness and pain, and they never 
can become your personal enemies. Here, if anywhere, love 
begets love V 

1 Travels, pp. 40 — 41. 



172 APPENDIX. [sect. 

Missionary Prospects in South Africa. 

"Go up now, look toward the sea. And he went up, and looked, 
and said, There is nothing. And he said, Go again seven times. And 
it came to pass at the seventh time, that he said, Behold, there ariseth a 
little cloud out of the sea, like a man's hand." i Kings xviii. 43, 44. 

Dr Livingstone's career must be considered as opening out 
a new a?ra for South Africa. Although the missionary prospects 
of this region were before and are improving, still clouds and 
sunshine chequer the rising scene. Yet, in the event, the 
dawn of the morning of joy shall usher in upon this continent 
and elsewhere, the rising of the Sun of righteousness, which 
shall be for the healing of the nations, streaming with undi- 
verted ray in azure and purple and gold over the everlasting 
hills of eternity, dispelling those doubts, fears and perplexities, 
as well as the unbelief and sinfulness which prevent the soul 
from seeing an( j being united with her Creator. 



The Mission-field in South Africa. 

"Behold, I say unto you, Lift up your eyes, and look on the fields ; 
for they are white already to harvest." St John iv. 35. 

In the infant days of the Church, Africa seemed destined 
to be evangelized from the north. Such is not at present the 
prospect. Then were Councils and Synods held by African 
bishops, the decrees of which went forth apparently as a final 
authority in matters ecclesiastical, not only in Africa, but also 
in Europe and Asia. Then was the glory of the early Church 
upheld at Alexandria and Carthage, these cities being great 
centres of episcopal authority. Then did African martyrs 
and African confessors live the lives of saints and die the 
deaths of Christian heroes. There were intellect, rank and 
the best qualities of our nature, sanctified and adorned by 
Christian gifts and graces, which made Africa appear to be 
the chosen genial soil wherein grace, mercy and truth might 
germinate and fructify. But no; all there is now almost a 



iv.] MISSION FIELD. 173 

natural and spiritual desert. The glory is thence departed, 
but is not to be forgotten. Time hath written lchahod upon 
its shattered escutcheon in characters which even the dust of 
centuries has not effaced. Still some faint spiritual splendour 
flickers around it, phosphorescent though it be. The light is 
all but put out in the north, and must now advance from 
the other three quarters. 

Travellers, voyagers, men of science and missionaries are 
by degrees telling us their wondrous stories of this land of 
mystery. It is now for the Christian to go in and possess it. 
The way is open and opening. The Apostles who go must be 
those of Christ ; not those of mammon, of mere adventure, or 
proud ambition. In too many cases the white man's look on 
the poor negro has been that of the fascination of the basilisk, 
leading to harm and destruction. His breath has been that 
of moral and spiritual pestilence, his feet have been swift to 
shed blood, and his very presence has been like that of the 
baleful upas tree. Let not this be the case in central Africa- 
It is for the Christian Church to occupy this field first with 
her faithful ambassadors of Christ. Let these speak first of 
the white man's God ; not of mammon, not of reason, not of 
pleasure, or of this world, but his God — the Trinity in Unity, 
reconciled by the sacrifice of a suffering Saviour. Let these 
shew the beauty of holiness by living that Gospel which the 
Church professes, teaches and believes. Then, if Satan's serv- 
ants come afterwards, these keen clear-sighted savages will at 
once discern the wheat from the chaff, and, by God's grace 
cling to the white man's good and eschew his blighting evil. 

Dr Livingstone says most decidedly that the interior is the 
most promising sphere for missionary labours. Not only are 
the people less savage, but such operations may have great in- 
fluence on the slave-trade. He has presented this odious 
traffic to the world in a new aspect ; enabling us now to know 
both its real sources and principal abettors in the interior, as 
well as its probable cure. 



174 APPENDIX. [sect. 

Missionary societies and the friends of missions, may well 
remember his urgent recommendation to push on to the un- 
taught heathen. There is every reason and encouragement for 
this. In parts where the earlier missionaries laboured, the 
work is become entirely self-supporting , as far as aid from 
England is concerned. 

Surely, then, the missionary work is real, and the mission- 
field among the heathen, is no barren waste. These truths are 
forcibly stated by Sir Benjamin Brodie 1 , in the following 
passage: " But Dr Livingstone is also presented to us under 
another aspect, as a Christian missionary, using his endeavours 
to extend the advantages of civilization, not after the fashion 
of the Roman conquerors of Gaul and Britain, by transplant- 
ing, at the cost of rapine and bloodshed, the arts and sciences 
of an older and more civilised people into the conquered 
country, but by communicating knowledge, promoting educa- 
tion, and inculcating the principles of a religion which enjoins 
the exercise of kindness, charity and justice, which tells us 
that we are to forgive our enemies, and do unto others as we 
would they should do unto us." 

Missionaries wanted more than means, to carry on the work. 

"How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of him that bring- 
eth good tidings, that publisheth peace ; that bringeth good tidings of 
good, that publisheth salvation ; that saith unto Zion, Thy God reign- 
eth ! " Isaiah lii. 7. 

The cry for men does not proceed from one society, but 
from all. The supply hitherto has by no means been equal to 
the demand. This need of men must be more and more made 
known and discussed throughout the length and breadth of 
the land. It must be more prayed over, preached about, and 
made the subject of earnest concernment both with ministers 
and people. 

A call came to Paul, in a midnight vision, stealing up 

1 Speech at the Farewell Festival. 



iv.] MISSIONARIES WANTED. 175 

from the cities and wilds of ancient Europe — " Come over 
into Macedonia and help us." The Apostle heard and obeyed 
that call. A like cry in spirit reaches this land of Bibles, 
missionary societies and religious privileges — from all the dark 
places of the earth — " Who will shew us any good?" Who will 
answer this invitation, so full of plaintive, earnest, absorbing, 
spiritual agony ? The work among the heathen demands your 
men of a great battling spirit, earnest in prayer, and wrestling 
prevailers with our God. It will tax the best energies of the 
strongest frame, and find fitting employment and materials 
for the efforts and aspirations of the loftiest genius. Men of 
purpose, men of acquirement, — men of spiritual mind, who 
love the Saviour and his cause, — men who can largely in- 
fluence others by their very presence, and by persuasion, 
teaching and example ; — men who live in this world, and yet 
who are not q/" it, — who are pilgrims and strangers here below 
— these are the men to answer this call. Such men need care 
but little about having no settled home now, for they have 
another, which hath foundations, whose builder and maker is 
God. Yes : such are the men to reply, " Here I am, Lord, 

SEND (NOT HIM ANOTHER BUT) ME." 

Our Universities are becoming more and more alive to this 
great work 1 . They are national institutions, and this is a 
national duty for them especially to carry forward. In these 
time-honoured institutions, the aspect of things pertaining to 
missionary responsibilities, privileges and enterprise, is rapidly 
changing, and will go on exactly in proportion to the activity 
and earnest prayerfulness of spirit evinced by their members. 

Appalling and urgent are the spiritual wants, and conti- 
nuous is the wail of a benighted world for peace, pardon, and 
acceptance with God. How shall this wail and how can these 

1 The Universities not only send large subscriptions to the Mission- 
ary Societies ; but Oxford, Cambridge and Dublin alone have now 
about fifty graduates labouring in heathen lands as ordained clergymen 
who are supported by the two great Church Societie 



176 APPENDIX. [sect. 

wants be met ? What shall we do to increase the supply of 
men? Looking at these questions just now solely with re- 
spect to the fact that God does deign to work out some of even 
his grandest purposes through the instrumentality of human 
means, we appear to want more systematic and energetic 
missionary action in our Universities, and increased means of 
familiarizing the mind with the reality of the work and its 
pressing needs. — A greater familiarity with foreign countries, 
languages, races, manners, customs, and religions, appears to be 
a great desideratum. 

We would venture to suggest the importance of a good 
Missionary Museum, and Reading Room, containing an appro- 
priate Library comprising not only books treating directly and 
indirectly on the subjects under review, but also maps and 
atlases, as well as lexicons and grammars referring to the 
languages and dialects the most employed by missionaries in 
their intercourse with the heathen. To all this, copies of 
the Scriptures and Prayer-Book printed in the same tongues 
might advantageously be added; together with a collection of 
autograph letters written home by missionaries and travellers, 
as well as a number of their portraits — the reports and current 
literature of the Home and Foreign Protestant Missionary 
Societies being added to all. Moreover occasional meetings 
for prayer, conversational and general missionary purposes, 
carried on in strict subordination to academical duties and 
pursuits, must be highly important. 

The frequent presence of eminent missionaries and travellers 
among such a body would also produce an effect of untold 
consequence. The strangeness and perplexity of idea pertain- 
ing to foreign lands and races would perhaps hereby be worn 
away more effectually by such intercourse than by any other 
means, except the fact of actually going to see, hear and feel for 
oneself 

Of course we bear in mind the truth that " the Lord of 
the harvest will thrust forth labourers into His harvest." But 



iv.] MISSIONARIES WANTED. 177 

tee know not in what way. His servants have to use all the 
means which they lawfully can to forward such an end, and 
then — not till then — to leave the result to Him. 

Missionaries F(lCtS P r0Ve tllis P osition - We are not to 

are to besought conclude that missionaries are sent into the 

for as well as wor ^ on i y b one i rres i s tible impulse like 

money, and a . . 

field of opera- St Paul was. This is contrary to Christian 

tlons - experience in general. Many are doubtless so 

impelled to offer themselves for the work. But others are to 
be led to it, — to be gradually prepared for it by intercourse 
with, and advice from, persons competent to influence and 
guide them. Henry Martyn to a great extent was so directed. 
Mr Simeon was instrumental in preparing — directly or indi- 
rectly, — and sending out many missionaries. Dr Morison, 
Dr Medhurst and Dr Milne, all went to China at the sug- 
gestion and recommendation of others ; so also did Williams 
to the South Seas. On the authority of an eminent Clergyman, 
now living, it can be stated that the Rev. Henry Fox went 
out as a missionary on his recommendation. Such has been 
the experience of many living missionaries. We may conclude 
that this list can be greatly enlarged by making inquiries and 
receiving information on the subject. 

Dr Livingstone, on visiting the reading-room of the Church 
Missionary Union, told the Editor of this book, that he him- 
self belonged to a like Society in the University at Glasgow; 
observing that his mind was much influenced towards mission- 
ary work by intercourse with the members of that Society; — 
adding, that he was one of five contemporary members, out 
of a small general body, who became missionaries. These 
facts are significant ; and with their bare statement, we leave 
this unspeakably important subject for prayerful consideration, 
and God's blessing on it. 



178 APPENDIX. [sect. 

The Means appointed for the Work — The Victory Won. 

"He which testifieth these things saith, Surely I come quickly. 
Amen. Even so, come, Lord Jesus." Rev. xxii. 20. 

These means are, the word preached^ and the word written 1 . 
The Missionary Societies are sending out their Missionaries to 
preach the Gospel; and the Bible, and other Societies, are 
scattering the written lively oracles of God over the whole 
earth. 

That word preached shall not return unto the Lord void, 
but it shall accomplish all his purposes. Hereby shall Christ's 
kingdom be enlarged and Satan's empire be destroyed. 

Dr Living- When Bishop Selwyn spake memorable 

stone's mis- words in Great St Mary's Church 2 , just before 

1 Mr Moffat has just completed his translation of the whole Bible 
into Sichuana. The importance of this achievement cannot well be esti- 
mated. 

There is something very striking in bringing this labour, Sebituane's 
conquests, and Dr Livingstone's explorations and discoveries, all to- 
gether. 

At the same time that Sebituane is introducing the language where 
it was not before spoken, Mr Moffat is treasuring up the Holy Scrip- 
tures in its first standard record. At the appointed moment, Dr Living- 
stone makes these facts, together with the new races and regions, all 
known to the Christian world. 

Professor Selwyn, in one of his Theological Lectures, well compared 
this fact of Sebituane's conquests being the means of diffusing the Scrip- 
tures, with the anterior coincidence of Alexander's exploits having 
spread the Greek language and Greek Scriptures in Asia. 

2 He preached four sermons as select preacher before this Univer- 
sity on the four Sundays preceding Advent, in the year 1854. The 
subject of these sermons is "The work of Christ in the world." 
They are published by Macmillan and Co. ; and should be read by all 
lovers of the cause of Christian missions to the heathen; and especially 
by those who desire the mission work. Bishop Selwyn's visit here, 
sermons, and speech at the Town Hall, deservedly made a profound 
sensation ; as well as produced fruit in calling forth labourers into the 
harvest. These facts favour the suggestions made at p. 1 76. 



iv.] THE MEANS TO BE USED. 179 

sionary be- his return to New Zealand,, somewhat after 
Cambridge. ^ie manner; — " Methinks tliere must be some 
spiritual electricity in this black cloud which now surrounds 
me — (waving his hand all round towards the dense array of 
Gowns) — which in the Lord's own time and w r ay will go 
forth to the ends of the earth to do his Almighty bidding for 
the conversion of souls;" — he was a true prophet. He spoke 
in faith, and that faith was answered. There are those now 
in the Mission field who heard and obeyed that call. 

Hundreds will never forget that solemn thrill produced 
by Dr Livingstone's peroration to his Senate-House lecture 1 , 
when waving his hand in the same manner as the Bishop — 
he retired amid deafening plaudits, abruptly stopping with 
that simply sublime appeal — "I leave it with you!" 

Certainly some of those who heard him there will be 
missionaries somewhere, but will any go to Africa? Will 
Cambridge accept of and improve this trust ? . . . O Lord 
God, Thou knowest! 

The Word written shall find its own mysterious tortuous 
way into every region, dialect, and language of the earth ; and 
men slwill be convinced of sin, as well as taught their need of a 
Saviour by its life-giving power. It shall whisper peace to the 
agitated conscience, and tell of the love of a Father reconciling 
the world to himself by the blood of his Son. Each humble 
believer in its promises s/tall be enabled to obtain the victory 
over the world, the flesh, and the devil by that same power 
which bestows the unspeakable gift of the Holy Ghost, to guide, 
counsel, and sanctify each softened heart. It shall climb the 
throne of each monarch, and tell him of a Sovereignty greater 
than his: demanding and finding entrance into the council- 
chamber of the legislator, it will teach him that lesson of so 
difficult realization, "To do unto others as he would have 
others do unto him." It sludl strike with the electric spell of 
conviction both the consciences of the ignorant, and the cogi- 
1 See page 24. 

20 



180 APPENDIX. [sect. 

tations of the learned ; and — bursting through all barriers into 
every den of infamy, haunt of pleasure, idol-temple, and arena 
of scepticism and infidelity in the world — it shall confound, 
convict, condemn, and send to punishment all those impenitent 
workers of iniquity who before may have been told to no pur- 
pose of righteousness, temperance, and judgment to come. Its 
still small voice of blissful comfort shall cheer the widow and 
the orphan — light up with hope the eye of the pining captive, 
and send the mantling blood of indignation into the withered 
cheek, as well as an unearthly energy into the drooping frame 
of each poor fettered slave, proclaim him free, and give back 
his stolen rights. Yes, that Word shall stop the mouth and 
blanch the cheeks of Satan and his crew; and, then, — having 
conquered these worst enemies of man ; — having put light for 
darkness, and truth in falsehood's place — it shall take from the 
grave his victory, and from death his sting, when it goes forth 
resistlessly both to glorify the Lord, and be itself abundantly 
glorified. 

The victory shall he won — hand to hand, step by step. 
Mission Stations are being gradually increased. These, just 
as stars in the firmament are larger and more glorious the 
nearer we get to them, will shine brighter and brighter the 
swifter time advances the Church towards the moment of 
the lifting up of her head, when her redemption draweth nigh. 
Moreover the nearer the stars are approached, the more 
numerous they appear, here and there starting into sight as 
distance is shortened, until they themselves are lost in heaven's 
refulgent splendour. So also do these Mission Stations in- 
crease, and shall do so, until their twinkling light, glimmering 
fitfully through the dismal gloom of heathenism, shall blaze 
out steadily into the brightness of the perfect day, and illumi- 
nate earth's spiritual sky with one belted zone of spiritual 
glory. 

Bright days then are in store for Africa. The race of 
Ham shall not always be accursed. God will yet more enlarge 



iv.] THE VICTORY WON. 181 

Japhet, who shall dwell in the tents of Shcm ; but Canaan 
shall not for ever be his servant. All mankind are brothers — 
one in blood — one in interests — one in hopes and fears for the 
world to come. Let them then act as brothers, and as the 
offspring of one common father who pitieth his children, and 
who will never leave nor forsake the work of his own hands. 

That time shall come when the earth shall be rilled with a 
knowledge of God's unapproachable glory; but for it the Church 
must wait, hope against hope, and fight. And then, having 
come out of great tribulation, and washed her robes white in 
the blood of the Lamb, she shall, through the instrumentality 
of her missionaries, gather her children out of every clime 
and kindred under heaven to sit down with Abraham, Isaac 
and Jacob in the kingdom of Christ and of God. 

"Waft, waft, ye winds, His story, 

And you, ye waters roll; 
Till, like a sea of glory, 

It spread from pole to pole ; 
Till o'er our ransomed nature, 

The Lamb for sinners slain, 
Redeemer, King, Creator, 

In bliss return to reign." 



THE EXD. 



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raphiad information irhuii l" Bringstoiu < <Ueded from \nteUiaei>: 
horn he convened during his Travels across Africa— J. A. 




Map to iUusrralc 

B? Liviiigtrtcncfa Rouie 



AFRICA; 

Constructed tVnmhis Astronomical Ohsci-valKins 
Bearings. Estimated Distances.; Sketches, 

by J.Jrrowsmith . 
1857. 






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By the Rev. HARVEY GOODWIN, M.A. 

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GOODWIN.— & Commentary on the Gospel of S. 

MATTHEW. By the Rev. Harvey Goodwin, M.A. Post 8vo. 12s. 

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gtrlsemt Itanras. 
GOODWIN— The Doctrines and Difficulties of the 

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GOODWIN— The Glory of the Only Begotten of the 

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BL UNT. — Five Sermons, preached before the University 

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CHUB TON. — Pearsoni Praefatio Parsenetica, ad Vetus 

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CROWFOOT— Bp. Pearson's Five Lectures on the 

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HAR VEY. — Sermons for Young Men. Preached before 

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HARVEY.— The History and Theology of the " Three 

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MILL. — Lectures on the Catechism. Delivered in the 

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MILL. — An Analysis of the Exposition of the Creed, 

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MA SKEW. — Annotations on the Acts of the Apostles. 

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PEBOWNE.—The Essential Coherence of the Old 

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SELWYN. — Notse Critical in Versionem Septuaginta- 

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WOODHAM.—Tke Apology of Tertullian. With 

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